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dc.contributor.authorUrbarova, Ilona
dc.contributor.authorForêt, Sylvain
dc.contributor.authorDahl, Mikael Per
dc.contributor.authorEmblem, Åse E.
dc.contributor.authorMilazzo, Marco
dc.contributor.authorHall-Spencer, Jason M.
dc.contributor.authorJohansen, Steinar Daae
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-18T11:26:52Z
dc.date.available2019-07-18T11:26:52Z
dc.date.issued2019-05-08
dc.description.abstractOcean acidification threatens to disrupt interactions between organisms throughout marine ecosystems. The diversity of reef-building organisms decreases as seawater CO2 increases along natural gradients, yet soft-bodied animals, such as sea anemones, are often resilient. We sequenced the polyA-enriched transcriptome of adult sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its dinoflagellate symbiont sampled along a natural CO2 gradient in Italy to assess stress levels in these organisms. We found that about 1.4% of the anemone transcripts, but only ~0.5% of the Symbiodinium sp. transcripts were differentially expressed. Processes enriched at high seawater CO2 were mainly linked to cellular stress, including significant up-regulation of protective cellular functions and deregulation of metabolic pathways. Transposable elements were differentially expressed at high seawater CO2, with an extreme up-regulation (> 100-fold) of the BEL-family of long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Seawater acidified by CO2 generated a significant stress reaction in A. viridis, but no bleaching was observed and Symbiodinium sp. appeared to be less affected. These observed changes indicate the mechanisms by which A. viridis acclimate to survive chronic exposure to ocean acidification conditions. We conclude that many organisms that are common in acidified conditions may nevertheless incur costs due to hypercapnia and/or lowered carbonate saturation states.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by grants from the Research Council of Norway (CoralSeq; SDJ), and Tromsø Research Foundation (SDJ). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.en_US
dc.descriptionPublished version, available at: <a href=https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210358>https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210358</a>en_US
dc.identifier.citationUrbarova, I., Forêt, S., Dahl, M.P., Emblem, Å.E., Milazzo, M., Hall-Spencer, J.M., Johansen, S.D. (2019) Ocean acidification at a coastal CO2 vent induces expression of stress-related transcripts and transposable elements in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. <i>PLoS ONE. 2019;14</i>, (5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210358en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.otherFRIDAID 1703482
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10037/15777
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherPLOSen_US
dc.relation.isbasedonThe RNA-seq raw sequencing data sets of twelve individuals of Anemonia viridis used in this study together with the transcriptome assembly are archived at NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under accession number PRJNA448978. The Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly (TSA) has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession GHCD00000000. The version described in this paper is the first version, GHCD01000000.en_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONE
dc.rights.accessRightsopenAccessen_US
dc.subjectVDP::Mathematics and natural science: 400::Basic biosciences: 470en_US
dc.subjectVDP::Matematikk og Naturvitenskap: 400::Basale biofag: 470en_US
dc.titleOcean acidification at a coastal CO2 vent induces expression of stress-related transcripts and transposable elements in the sea anemone Anemonia viridisen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US


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