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    • Polar Mesospheric Winter Echoes - an analysis of selected cases 

      Ettestad, Kristine (Mastergradsoppgave; Master thesis, 2022-05-31)
      Polar Mesospheric Winter Echoes (PMWE) are strong coherent radar echoes, from the upper mesosphere at 55-85 km that are observed typically from end of August until beginning of May. Some models to explain PMWE formation suggest that they form because of turbulence in the atmosphere. Other models suggest that the PMWEs form like summer polar mesospheric echoes (PMSE) where charged dust particles ...