Now showing items 1-20 of 21

    • Biological introduction risks from shipping in a warming Arctic 

      Ware, Christopher; Berge, Jørgen; Jelmert, Anders; Olsen, Steffen M.; Pellisier, Loic; Wisz, Mary S.; Kriticos, Darren J.; Semenov, Georgy; Kwasniewski, Sawomir; Alsos, Inger Greve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2015-12-14)
      Several decades of research on invasive marine species have yielded a broad understanding of the nature of species invasion mechanisms and associated threats globally. However, this is not true of the Arctic, a region where ongoing climatic changes may promote species invasion. Here, we evaluated risks associated with non-indigenous propagule loads discharged with ships' ballast water to the high-Arctic ...
    • Characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae) 

      Müller, Eike; Hlavackova, Iva; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Alsos, Inger Greve; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2015-09-08)
      Premise of the study: Fifty candidate microsatellite markers, generated using 454 shotgun sequencing, were tested for the widespread arctic/alpine herb Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae). Methods and Results: Fourteen out of 50 markers resulted in polymorphic products with profiles that enabled interpretation. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, and the expected heterozygosity ...
    • Circumpolar Arctic vegetation: a hierarchic review and roadmap toward an internationally consistent approach to survey, archive and classify tundra plot data 

      Walker, D. A.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Alsos, Inger Greve; Bhatt, U S; Breen, A L; Buchhorn, M; Bultmann, H; Druckenmiller, L A; Edwards, M E; Ehrich, Dorothee; Epstein, Howard E.; Gould, W.A.; Ims, Rolf Anker; Meltofte, H; Raynolds, M. K.; Sibik, J; Talbot, SS; Webber, P. J. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2016-05-10)
      Satellite-derived remote-sensing products are providing a modern circumpolar perspective of Arctic vegetation and its changes, but this new view is dependent on a long heritage of ground-based observations in the Arctic. Several products of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna are key to our current understanding.Wereview aspects of the PanArctic Flora, the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation ...
    • Climate change, non-indigenous species and shipping: assessing the risk of species introduction to a high-Arctic archipelago 

      Ware, Christopher; Berge, Jørgen; Sundet, Jan Henry; Kirkpatrick, JB; Coutts, A.D.M.; Jelmert, Anders; Olsen, SM; Floerl, O; Wisz, Mary S.; Alsos, Inger Greve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      Aim: Anticipated changes in the global ocean climate will affect the vulnerability of marine ecosystems to the negative effects of non-indigenous species (NIS). In the Arctic, there is a need to better characterize present and future marine biological introduction patterns and processes. We use a vector-based assessment to estimate changes in the vulnerability of a high-Arctic archipelago to marine ...
    • Germinating seeds or bulbils in 87 of 113 tested Arctic species indicate potential for ex situ seed bank storage 

      Alsos, Inger Greve; Müller, Eike; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      Arctic plant species are expected to lose range due to climate change. One approach to preserve the genetic and species diversity for the future is to store propagules in seed vaults. However, germinability of seeds is assumed to be low for Arctic species. We evaluated ex situ storage potential of 113 of the 161 native angiosperms of Svalbard by studying seed ripening and germination. Seeds or bulbils ...
    • Giant invasive Heracleum persicum: Friend or foe of plant diversity? 

      Rijal, Dilli Prasad; Alm, Torbjørn; Nilsen, Lennart; Alsos, Inger Greve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-05-30)
      The impact of invasion on diversity varies widely and remains elusive. Despite the con- siderable attempts to understand mechanisms of biological invasion, it is largely un- known whether some communities’ characteristics promote biological invasion, or whether some inherent characteristics of invaders enable them to ...
    • Holocene floristic diversity and richness in northeast Norway revealed by sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) and pollen 

      Clarke, Charlotte; Edwards, Mary Elizabeth; Brown, Antony Gavin; Gielly, Ludovic; Lammers, Youri; Heintzman, Peter D.; Murguzur, Francisco Javier Ancin; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Goslar, Tomasz; Alsos, Inger Greve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-10-30)
      We present a Holocene record of floristic diversity and environmental change for the central Varanger Peninsula, Finnmark, based on ancient DNA extracted from the sediments of a small lake (<i>sed</i>aDNA). The record covers the period c. 10 700 to 3300 cal. a BP and is complemented by pollen data. Measures of species richness, sample evenness and beta diversity were calculated based on <i>sed</i>aDNA ...
    • Lake sedimentary DNA accurately records 20th Century introductions of exotic conifers in Scotland 

      Sjøgren, Per Johan; Edwards, Mary Elizabeth; Gielly, Ludovic; Langdon, Cathrine; Croudace, I.W.; Merkel, Marie Kristine Føreid; Thierry, Fonville; Alsos, Inger Greve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2016-09-28)
      Sedimentary DNA (sedDNA) has recently emerged as a new proxy for reconstructing past vegetation, but its taphonomy, source area and representation biases need better assessment. We investigated how sedDNA in recent sediments of two small Scottish lakes reflects a major vegetation change, using well-documented 20th Century plantations of exotic conifers as an experimental system. We used next-generation ...
    • Living on the edge: conservation genetics of seven thermophilous plant species in a high Arctic archipelago 

      Birkeland, Siri; Skjetne, Idunn Elisabeth Borgen; Brysting, Anne Krag; Elven, Reidar; Alsos, Inger Greve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-01-19)
      Small, isolated and/or peripheral populations are expected to harbour low levels of genetic variation and may therefore have reduced adaptability to environmental change, including climate warming. In the Arctic, global warming has already caused vegetation change across the region and is acting as a significant stressor on Arctic biodiversity. Many of the rare plants in the Arctic are relicts from ...
    • Long-distance plant dispersal to North Atlantic islands: colonization routes and founder effect 

      Alsos, Inger Greve; Ehrich, Dorothee; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Solstad, Heidi Merethe; Westergaard, Kristine Bakke; Schonswetter, Peter; Tribsch, Andreas; Birkeland, Siri; Elven, Reidar; Brochmann, Christian (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2015-04-15)
      Long-distance dispersal (LDD) processes influence the founder effect on islands.We use genetic data for 25 Atlantic species and similarities among regional floras to analyse colonization, and test whether the genetic founder effect on five islands is associated with dispersal distance, island size and species traits. Most species colonized postglacially via multiple dispersal events from several ...
    • Microsatellite markers for Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) and allied taxa: application of next-generation sequencing to develop genetic resources for invasive species management 

      Rijal, Dilli Prasad; Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Alm, Torbjørn; Alsos, Inger Greve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2014)
    • Past Arctic aliens have passed away, current ones may stay 

      Alsos, Inger Greve; Ware, Christopher; Elven, Reidar (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2015-07-04)
      Increased human activity and climate change are expected to increase the numbers and impact of alien species in the Arctic, but knowledge of alien species is poor in most Arctic regions. Through field investigations over the last 10 years, and review of alien vascular plant records for the high Arctic Archipelago Svalbard over the past 130 years, we explored long term trends in persistence and ...
    • Plant DNA in sediments: to which degree do they represent the flora? 

      Alsos, Inger Greve; Coissac, Eric; Edwards, Mary E.; Merkel, Marie Kristine Føreid; Gielly, Ludovic; Sjögren, Per; Taberlet, Pierre; Yoccoz, Nigel Gilles (Conference object; Konferansebidrag, 2015-05)
    • Plant DNA metabarcoding of lake sediments: How does it represent the contemporary vegetation 

      Alsos, Inger Greve; Lammers, Youri; Yoccoz, Nigel Gilles; Jørgensen, Tina; Sjögren, Per; Gielly, Ludovic; Edwards, Mary E. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-04-17)
      Metabarcoding of lake sediments have been shown to reveal current and past biodiversity, but little is known about the degree to which taxa growing in the vegetation are represented in environmental DNA (eDNA) records. We analysed composition of lake and catchment vegetation and vascular plant eDNA at 11 lakes in northern Norway. Out of 489 records of taxa growing within 2 m from the lake shore, ...
    • Prevention of microbial species introductions to the arctic: The efficacy of footwear disinfection measures on cruise ships 

      Rumpf, Sabine Bettina; Alsos, Inger Greve; Ware, Christopher (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-03-06)
      Biosecurity measures are commonly used to prevent the introduction of non-native species to natural environments globally, yet the efficacy of practices is rarely tested under operational conditions. A voluntary biosecurity measure was trialled in the Norwegian high Arctic following concern that non-native species might be transferred to the region on the footwear of travellers. Passengers aboard ...
    • Range shifts and global warming: ecological responses of Empetrum nigrum L. to experimental warming at its northern (high Arctic) and southern (Atlantic) geographical range margin 

      Buizer, B; Weijers, S; van Bodegom, PM; Alsos, Inger Greve; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; van Breda, J; de Korte, M; van Rijckevorsel, J; Rozema, J (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2012)
      Global change is expected to lead to range shifts of plant species. The ecological mechanisms underpinning these shifts are currently not well understood. Here, we compared ecological responses possibly underlying southern range contraction and northern range expansion of Empetrum nigrum, a key species in northern heathlands, which may be related to global change. We hypothesized a negative ...
    • Reconstructing the invasion history of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) into Europe 

      Rijal, Dilli Prasad; Alm, Torbjørn; Jahodová, Šárka; Stenøien, Hans K.; Alsos, Inger Greve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel, 2015-11-06)
      Sparse, incomplete and inappropriate historical records of invasive species often hamper invasive species management interventions. Population genetic analyses of invaders might provide a suitable context for the identification of their source populations and possible introduction routes. Here, we describe the population genetics of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch and trace its route of introduction ...
    • The role of sea ice for vascular plant dispersal in the Arctic 

      Alsos, Inger Greve; Ehrich, Dorothee; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Bennike, Ole; Kirchhefer, Andreas; Geirsdottir, Aslaug (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2016-09)
      Sea ice has been suggested to be an important factor for dispersal of vascular plants in the Arctic. To assess its role for postglacial colonization in the North Atlantic region, we compiled data on the first Late Glacial to Holocene occurrence of vascular plant species in East Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Svalbard. For each record, we reconstructed likely past dispersal events ...
    • Sedimentary ancient DNA from Lake Skartjørna, Svalbard: Assessing the resilience of arctic flora to Holocene climate change 

      Alsos, Inger Greve; Sjögren, Per Johan E.; Edwards, Mary E.; Landvik, Jon Y.; Gielly, Ludovic; Forwick, Matthias; Coissac, Eric; Brown, Antony G; Jakobsen, Leif Vidar; Merkel, Marie Kristine Føreid; Pedersen, Mikkel Winter (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2015-11-11)
    • Tetraploids do not form cushions: association of ploidy level, growth form and ecology in the High Arctic Saxifraga oppositifolia L. s. lat. (Saxifragaceae) in Svalbard 

      Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Müller, Eike; Lettner, Christian; Alsos, Inger Greve; Bender, Morgan; Kristiansen, Martin; Peeters, Bart; Postma, Froukje; Verweij, Koen Frans (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      Saxifraga oppositifolia L. is a common circumpolar plant species that displays considerable morphological and genetic variation throughout its range. It is mainly diploid, but tetraploids are reported from several regions. The growth form varies from prostate to cushion-shaped, and the plant thrives in wet snow beds as well as on dry ridges. This variation has triggered the curiosity of ...