Gauge-origin independent calculations of electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation circular intensity difference using London atomic orbitals
We present the first gauge-origin independent calculations of the circular intensity difference (CID) in electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG), including all contributions up to the electric-quadrupole–magnetic-dipole level. A recursive, open-ended response theory framework in combination with the use of London atomic orbitals allows us to ensure gauge-origin independent results. We apply this approach to study EFISHG-CID in a collection of chiral amino acids. We demonstrate that diffuse polarising basis functions are critical in order to obtain accurate CIDs, and that a basis set of at least aug-cc-pVTZ quality is needed in order to obtain results close to the basis-set limit. The use of London orbitals does not lead to significantly faster basis set convergence, although the improved basis set convergence allows the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set to be used with some confidence for larger molecules.
Accepted manuscript version. Published version available in Molecular Physics, 115:1-2, 241-251