Dynamical models of mutated chronic myelogenous leukemia cells for a postimatinib treatment scenario: Response to dasatinib or nilotinib therapy
Targeted inhibition of the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 fusion protein using the ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib has become standard therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), with most patients reaching total and durable remission. However, a significant fraction of patients develop resistance, commonly due to mutated ABL1 kinase domains. This motivated development of second-generation drugs with broadened or altered protein kinase selectivity profiles, including dasatinib and nilotinib. Imatinib-resistant patients undergoing treatment with second-line drugs typically develop resistance to them, but dynamic and clonal properties of this response differ. Shared, however, is the observation of clonal competition, reflected in patterns of successive dominance of individual clones. We present three deterministic mathematical models to study the origins of clinically observed dynamics. Each model is a system of coupled first-order differential equations, considering populations of three mutated active stem cell strains and three associated pools of differentiated cells; two models allow for activation of quiescent stem cells. Each approach is distinguished by the way proliferation rates of the primary stem cell reservoir are modulated. Previous studies have concentrated on simulating the response of wild-type leukemic cells to imatinib administration; our focus is on modelling the time dependence of imatinib-resistant clones upon subsequent exposure to dasatinib or nilotinib. Performance of the three computational schemes to reproduce selected CML patient profiles is assessed. While some simple cases can be approximated by a basic design that does not invoke quiescence, others are more complex and require involvement of non-cycling stem cells for reproduction. We implement a new feedback mechanism for regulation of coupling between cycling and non-cycling stem cell reservoirs that depends on total cell populations. A bifurcation landscape analysis is also performed for solutions to the basic ansatz. Computational models reproducing patient data illustrate potential dynamic mechanisms that may guide optimization of therapy of drug resistant CML.