Effects of dietary crude oil exposure on molecular and physiological parameters related to lipid homeostasis in polar cod (Boreogadus saida)
AuthorVieweg, Ireen; Bilbao, Eider; Meador, James P.; Cancio, Ibon; Bender, Morgan Lizabeth; Cajaraville, Miren P.; Nahrgang, Jasmine
Polar cod is an abundant Arctic key species, inhabiting an ecosystem that is subjected to rapid climate change and increased petroleum related activities. Few studies have investigated biological effects of crude oil on lipid metabolism in this species, despite lipids being a crucial compound for Arctic species to adapt to the high seasonality in food abundance in their habitat. This study examines the effects of dietary crude oil exposure on transcription levels of genes related to lipid metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors [ppar-α, ppar-γ], retinoic X receptor [rxr-β], palmitoyl-CoA oxidase [aox1], cytochrome P4507A1 [cyp7α1]), reproduction (vitellogenin [vtg-β], gonad aromatase [cyp19a1]) and biotransformation (cytochrome P4501A1 [cyp1a1], aryl hydrocarbon receptor [ahr2]). Exposure effects were also examined through plasma chemistry parameters. Additional fish were exposed to a PPAR-α agonist (WY-14,643) to investigate the role of PPAR-α in their lipid metabolism. The dose-dependent up-regulation of cyp1a1 reflected the activation of genes related to PAH biotransformation upon crude oil exposure. The crude oil exposure did not significantly alter the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis except for cyp7α1 transcription levels. Plasma levels of cholesterol and alanine transaminase showed significant alterations in fish exposed to crude oil at the end of the experiment. WY exposure induced a down-regulation of ppar-α, an effect contrary to studies performed on other fish species. In conclusion, this study showed clear effects of dietary crude oil exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations on xenobiotic biotransformation but revealed only weak alterations in the lipid metabolism of polar cod.