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  • Distinct Host–Mycobacterial Pathogen Interactions between Resistant Adult and Tolerant Tadpole Life Stages of Xenopus laevis 

    Rhoo, Kun Hyoe; Edholm, Eva-Stina Isabella; Forzan, Maria J; Khan, Adil Mahboob; Waddle, Anthony W; Pavelka, Martin S; Robert, Jacques (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Preprint; Manuskript, 2019-11-15)
    <i>Mycobacterium marinum</i> is a promiscuous pathogen infecting many vertebrates, including humans, whose persistent infections are problematic for aquaculture and public health. Among unsettled aspects of host–pathogen interactions, the respective roles of conventional and innate-like T (iT) cells in host defenses against <i>M. marinum</i> remain unclear. In this study, we developed an infection ...
  • Studies on the antibody response and side effects after intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection of Atlantic lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) with different oil-based vaccines 

    Erkinharju, Toni; Lundberg, Martin, Rønbeck; Isdal, Eivind; Hordvik, Ivar; Dalmo, Roy Ambli; Seternes, Tore (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-05-26)
    Atlantic lumpfish (<i>Cyclopterus lumpus</i> L.) is used as a biological delousing agent for sea lice (<i>Lepeophtheirus salmonis</i> K.) infestations in Norwegian aquaculture. Here, we present a study on the antibody response and vaccine side effects after intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection of lumpfish with two vaccines. Both vaccines contained bacterial antigens from atypical <i>Aeromonas ...
  • Hedge Funds as a Diversification Vehicle 

    Mikkelsen, Andreas; Kjærland, Frode; Henriksen, Tom Erik Sønsteng (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel, 2019-10-01)
    This study evaluates the out-of-sample diversification benefits of including hedge fund indexes in global stock-bond portfolios. The topic is investigated by assessing several asset allocation strategies from 1998 to 2016. Interestingly, the findings show, in general, no significant increase in performance when hedge funds are included in a portfolio, compared to a well-diversified portfolio as ...
  • Strategic investments in catch capacity and quotas: How costly is a mismatch for a firm? 

    Bertheussen, Bernt Arne; Xie, Jinghua; Vassdal, Terje (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2020-02-08)
    Despite improved fisheries management, overcapacity is still a major issue in fisheries worldwide. This study investigates the economic effect of a mismatch between catch capacity and quota holdings on the economic performance of fishing boats operating in a system of Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) system. Based on the data of 71 fishing vessels, which constitute the entire fleet of Norwegian seagoing ...
  • Lysophosphatidylcholines and Chlorophyll-Derived Molecules from the Diatom Cylindrotheca closterium with Anti-Inflammatory Activity 

    Lauritano, Chiara; Helland, Kirsti; Riccio, Gennaro; Andersen, Jeanette Hammer; Ianora, Adrianna; Hansen, Espen Holst (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2020-03-17)
    Microalgae have been shown to be excellent producers of lipids, pigments, carbohydrates, and a plethora of secondary metabolites with possible applications in the pharmacological, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical sectors. Recently, various microalgal raw extracts have been found to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we performed the fractionation of raw extracts of the diatom ...
  • Tourism in marine protected areas: Can it be considered as an alternative livelihood for local communities? 

    Pham, Thi Thanh Thuy (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2020-03-03)
    The promotion of tourism has been considered to be a key strategy in reducing people's dependence on marine resources and for creating alternative livelihoods for the communities living in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). This paper studies the determinants for the decision of participation in tourism-related activities and examines whether tourism could be regarded as an alternative livelihood for ...
  • Mapping the Historical Shipwreck Figaro in the High Arctic Using Underwater Sensor-Carrying Robots 

    Mogstad, Aksel Alstad; Ødegård, Øyvind; Nornes, Stein Melvær; Ludvigsen, Martin; Johnsen, Geir; Sørensen, Asgeir Johan; Berge, Jørgen (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2020-03-19)
    In 2007, a possible wreck site was discovered in Trygghamna, Isfjorden, Svalbard by the Norwegian Hydrographic Service. Using (1) a REMUS 100 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with a sidescan sonar (SSS) and (2) a Seabotix LBV 200 mini-remotely operated vehicle (ROV) with a high-definition (HD) camera, the wreck was in 2015 identified as the Figaro: a floating whalery that sank in 1908. ...
  • Advantages and Limitations of Using Mobile Apps for Protected Area Monitoring and Management 

    Munoz, Lorena; Hausner, Vera Helene; Monz, Christopher (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-02-18)
    Digital technologies, including participatory Internet mapping, social media and smartphones, provide new avenues for research in outdoor recreation and tourism. The potential to reach a greater audience and collect visitation data on a broader scale, with less costs than traditional paper surveys, are key advantages that have increased the use of these novel technologies. Using of mobile apps for ...
  • Compositional and morphological analyses of wax in northern wild berry species 

    Trivedi, Priyanka; Karppinen, Katja; Klavins, Linards; Kviesis, Jorens; Sundqvist, Petri; Nguyen, Nga; Heinonen, Esa; Klavins, Maris; Jaakola, Laura; Väänänen, Juha; Remes, Janne; Häggman, Hely (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-05-21)
    Aerial surfaces of plants are covered by a waxy cuticle protecting plants from excessive water loss and UV light. In the present study, composition and morphology of cuticular waxes of northern wild berry species bilberry (<i>Vaccinium myrtillus</i> L.), lingonberry (V. <i>vitis-idaea</i> L.), bog bilberry (V. <i>uliginosum</i> L.) and crowberry (<i>Empetrum nigrum</i> L.) were investigated. Scanning ...
  • Evaluation of open- and closed-eyed entrances on retention and escape of invasive swimming crabs and associated fauna from pots in their native range 

    Vazquez-Archdale, Miguel; Santos, Jorge; Watariguchi, Fukunori (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-03-29)
    Fishing trials targeting several invasive swimming crab species in their native habitat were undertaken using two types of collapsible pot, one with open-eyed entrances and the other with closed-eyed entrances, to analyse differences in catch retention between them. The open-eyed pot was dome-shaped with two funnel entrances located at opposite ends, whereas the closed-eyed pot had two soft sleeves ...
  • The role of marine mammals in the Barents Sea foodweb 

    Blanchet, Marie-Anne; Primicerio, Paul; Frainer, Andrè; Kortsch, Susanne; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Dolgov, Andrey V.; Aschan, Michaela (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-08-26)
    Marine mammals are important players in the Barents Sea ecosystem but their structural role in the foodweb has been little explored. We compare foodweb-related characteristics within and between phylogenetic groups for 19 marine mammals. As a group, they directly connect to the most central species (i.e cod and haddock) in the Barents Sea (i.e. cod and haddock) and consume over half of the available ...
  • The genetic legacy of extreme exploitation in a polar vertebrate 

    Paijmans, Anneke; Stoffel, Martin A.; Bester, Marthán N.; Cleary, Alison Clare; de Bruyn, P.J. Nico; Forcada, Jaume; Goebel, M; Goldsworthy, S.D.; Guinet, Christophe; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lowther, Andrew; Hoffman, Joseph I. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2020-03-20)
    Understanding the effects of human exploitation on the genetic composition of wild populations is important for predicting species persistence and adaptive potential. We therefore investigated the genetic legacy of large-scale commercial harvesting by reconstructing, on a global scale, the recent demographic history of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella), a species that was hunted to the ...
  • Sami knowledge and ecosystem-based adaptation strategies for managing pastures under threat from multiple land uses 

    Hausner, Vera Helene; Engen, Sigrid; Brattland, Camilla; Fauchald, Per (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-12-13)
    Ecosystem‐based adaptation (EbA) relies upon the capacity of ecosystems to buffer communities against the adverse impacts of climate change. Maintaining ecosystems that deliver critical services to communities can also provide co‐benefits beyond adaptation, such as climate mitigation and protection of biological diversity and livelihoods. EbA has, to a limited extent, drawn upon indigenous and local ...
  • Global effect of urban sprawl, industrialization, trade and economic development on carbon dioxide emissions 

    Sarkodie, Samuel Asumadu; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa; Leirvik, Thomas (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2020-03-05)
    Significant progress has been made towards mitigating climate change and its impacts across countries. However, the transboundary effect of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions means that excluding the actions and inactions of certain countries and territories that escalate emissions is alarming. On this note, we examined the heterogeneous contribution of immediate and underlying drivers of emissions across 206 ...
  • Nursing staff’s evaluation of facilitators and barriers during implementation of wireless nurse call systems in residential care facilities. A cross-sectional study 

    Dugstad, Janne H; Sundling, Vibeke; Nilsen, Etty Ragnhild; Eide, Hilde (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2020-03-04)
    <i>Background</i> - Traditional nurse call systems used in residential care facilities rely on patients to summon assistance for routine or emergency needs. Wireless nurse call systems (WNCS) offer new affordances for persons unable to actively or consciously engage with the system, allowing detection of hazardous situations, prevention and timely treatment, as well as enhanced nurse workflows. ...
  • Identifying spatial overlap in the values of locals, domestic- and international tourists to protected areas 

    Munoz, Lorena; Hausner, Vera Helene; Brown, Greg; Runge, Claire Alice; Fauchald, Per (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-10-22)
    Nature-based tourism is increasingly encouraged to support local socioeconomic development in and around protected areas, but managing protected areas for tourism could challenge existing park uses associated with self-organized outdoor recreation and local resource use. We used a web-based Public Participatory Geographic Information System (PPGIS) to identify the most important places and values ...
  • Marine CO2 system variability in a high arctic tidewater-glacier fjord system, Tempelfjorden, Svalbard 

    Ericson, Ylva; Falck, Eva; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta Ingrid; Kristiansen, Svein (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-05-04)
    The marine CO<sub>2</sub> system in Tempelfjorden (Svalbard) was investigated between August 2015 and December 2017 using total alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, oxygen isotopic ratio, and nutrient data. Primary production resulted in the largest changes that were observed in the partial pressure of CO<sub>2</sub> (<i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub>, 140 μatm) and the saturation state of aragonite ...
  • Maternal Photoperiodic Programming: Melatonin and Seasonal Synchronization Before Birth 

    van Dalum, Jayme; Melum, Vebjørn Jacobsen; Wood, Shona Hiedi; Hazlerigg, David (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2020-01-10)
    This mini-review considers the phenomenon of maternal photoperiodic programming (MPP). In order to match neonatal development to environmental conditions at the time of birth, mammals use melatonin produced by the maternal pineal gland as a transplacental signal representing ambient photoperiod. Melatonin acts via receptors in the fetal pituitary gland, exerting actions on the developing medio-basal ...
  • Vertical export of marine pelagic protists in an ice-free high-Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden, West Spitsbergen) throughout 2011-2012 

    Marquardt, Miriam; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Wiedmann, Ingrid; Vader, Anna; Reigstad, Marit; Cottier, Finlo Robert; Gabrielsen, Tove M. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-06-06)
    The ecosystem role of Arctic microbial communities is still largely unknown. Based on a time-series study at the IsA station (West Spitsbergen), the seasonality and contribution of pelagic protists to the vertical flux was investigated at 7 time points during 2011-2012. The hydrography of this high-Arctic fjord was evaluated to identify impacts on the community composition during the different ...
  • Large loss of CO2 in winter observed across the northern permafrost region 

    Natali, Susan M.; Watts, Jennifer D.; Rogers, Brendan M.; Potter, Stefano; Ludwig, Sarah M.; Selbmann, Anne-Katrin; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Arndt, Kyla A.; Birch, Leah; Björkman, Mats P.; Bloom, A. Anthony; Celis, Gerardo; Christensen, Torben R.; Christiansen, Casper Tai; Commane, Roisin; Cooper, Elisabeth J.; Crill, Patrick; Czimczik, Claudia; Davydov, Sergey; Du, Jinyang; Egan, Jocelyn E.; Elberling, Bo; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Friborg, Thomas; Genet, Hélène; Göckede, Mathias; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Grogan, Paul; Helbig, Manuel; Jafarov, Elchin E.; Jastrow, Julie D.; Kalhori, Aram A. M.; Kim, Yongwon; Kimball, John S.; Kutzbach, Lars; Lara, Mark J.; Larsen, Klaus S.; Lee, Bang-Yong; Liu, Zhihua; Loranty, Michael M.; Lund, Magnus; Lupascu, Massimo; Madani, Nima; Malhotra, Avni; Matamala, Roser; McFarland, Jack; McGuire, A. David; Michelsen, Anders; Minions, Christina; Oechel, Walter C.; Olefeldt, David; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Pirk, Norbert; Poulter, Ben; Quinton, William; Rezanezhad, Fereidoun; Risk, David; Sachs, Torsten; Schaefer, Kevin; Schmidt, Niels M.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Shaver, Gaius; Sonnentag, Oliver; Starr, Gregory; Treat, Claire C.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Wang, Yihui; Welker, Jeffrey; Wille, Christian; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Zona, Donatella (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-10-21)
    Recent warming in the Arctic, which has been amplified during the winter, greatly enhances microbial decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent release of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>). However, the amount of CO<sub>2</sub> released in winter is not known and has not been well represented by ecosystem models or empirically based estimates. Here we synthesize regional in situ observations ...

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