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  • Mechanistic model identifies increasing light availability due to sea ice reductions as cause for increasing macroalgae cover in the Arctic 

    Scherrer, Kim Josefin Niklasdotter; Kortsch, Susanne; Varpe, Øystein; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa Antonie; Gulliksen, Bjørn; Primicerio, Raul (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-10-04)
    In the Arctic, rising seawater temperatures and increasing underwater light caused by reductions in sea ice cover are expected to change the structure of arctic marine communities. Substantial, sometimes sudden, increases in macroalgal productivity and biomass have already been observed in arctic rocky bottom communities. These macroalgal responses have been attributed to increasing temperature and ...
  • Chronobiology of voluntary food intake in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) 

    Rescia, Leonardo (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2018-11-15)
    In all organisms, biological rhythms arise from the interaction between endogenous clocks and a rhythmic environment. The timing of sunrise and sunset synchronize internal timing processes and inform the organism not only of the time of day, but also of the time of year. For animals living in polar regions biological timekeeping represents a challenge, given that the sun does not rise during the ...
  • The Marine Plastic Microbiome: Microbial Colonization of Polymer Surfaces in the Arctic Marine Environment 

    Stitzlein, Tarah Marie (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2018-09-25)
    While the sources and fates of plastic pollution are receiving growing attention, major knowledge gaps exist. Among these, microbial degradation (aka biodegradation) of plastics remains poorly investigated. The process of biodegradation begins with the formation of biofilm on the polymer surface; our study aimed to investigate microbial colonization of polymer surfaces in the Arctic marine environment ...
  • Evaluating the use of biotic interactions in species distribution models 

    Ball, Jack Ethan (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2018-08-15)
    Species distribution models are a key tool in predicting and projecting population changes in the past, present and future. In the past they have mostly focused on using abiotic interactions for their models. This may be inadequate however as biotic interactions play an important role in determining community composition. Climate change has created and will create many novel communities that have ...
  • Comparing size selectivity of traditional and knotless diamond-mesh codends in the Iceland redfish (Sebastes spp.) fishery 

    Cheng, Zhaohai; Einarsson, Haraldur Arnar; Bayse, Shannon; Herrmann, Bent; Winger, Paul (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-04-30)
    The size selectivity and usability of two diamond mesh codends, a traditional two-panel codend versus an experimental four-panel ultra-cross knotless mesh codend, were compared using the covered codend method in the Iceland redfish (<i>Sebastes norvegicus and S. viviparous</i>) fishery. Results showed that there was no significant difference in size selectivity between the codends at lengths greater ...
  • Attitudes and intentional reactions towards mariculture development - local residents' perspective 

    Armbrecht, John; Skallerud, Kåre (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-03-22)
    Aquaculture (i.e., farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans, and aquatic plants) is playing an increasingly important role in the global food supply. The contribution of aquaculture to total fish production has risen steadily, reaching 44% in 2014 (Moffitt and Cajas-Cano, 2014). The future growth of aquaculture is expected to help accomplish the Sustainable Development ...
  • Preference for local food as a matter of helping behaviour: Insights from Norway 

    Skallerud, Kåre; Wien, Anders Hauge (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-03-02)
    Consumption of local food is a fast-growing trend supported by local food advocates and governments. This trend has also captured the interest of researchers. The present study draws from the foundational principles of the theoretical perspective of helping behaviour with a view to enhancing the understanding of why people buy local food. This article tests a conceptual framework with proposed ...
  • Who are the future seaweed consumers in a Western society? Insights from Australia 

    Birch, Dawn; Skallerud, Kåre; Paul, Nicholas A. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-09-09)
    <i>Purpose</i>: The purpose of this paper is to profile the consumers who are likely to eat seaweed products in Australia.<p> <p><i>Design/methodology/approach</i>: The study was conducted as an online survey among 521 Australian consumers. Binary logistic regression modelling was used to profile the consumers.<p> <p><i>Findings</i>: The paper identifies education, familiarity, food ...
  • The design and implementation of driving time regulation 

    Bergland, Harald; Pedersen, Pål Andreas (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-09-21)
    Our object of study is welfare optimal driving time regulations in professional road transportation. Due to fatigue, traffic accident risks are supposed to increase as driving times rise. Conversely, the quantity and quality of road infrastructure affect productivity and safety in transportation positively. As the typical driver does not bear all the social costs when accidents happen, in the absence ...
  • No support for cryptic choice by ovarian fluid in an external fertilizer 

    Kleppe, April Snøfrid; Nordeide, Jarle Tryti; Rudolfsen, Geir; Figenschou, Lars; Larsen, Berner; Reiss, Katrin; Folstad, Ivar (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-12-22)
    Whether the ovarian fluid (OF) represents a selective environment influencing cryp‐tic female choice was tested using an external fertilizer experiencing intense sperm competition and large effects of OF on sperm swimming behavior—the Arctic charr (<i>Salvelinus alpinus</i>). We physically separated the OF from the eggs of reproductively active females and reintroduced either their ...
  • Migration in seabirds: seasonal structure in space and environment across species, populations and individuals 

    Merkel, Benjamin (Doctoral thesis; Doktorgradsavhandling, 2019-05-21)
    Identifying drivers of population trends in migratory species is difficult, as they can face many stressors while moving through different areas and environments during the annual cycle. Their population response to environmental change may in addition be affected by consistent differences in individual behaviour, which are widespread in free-living populations. An understanding of the structure of ...
  • Towards a framework to guide and facilitate interdisciplinary social-ecological system research in practice. 

    Weber, Charlotte Teresa (Doctoral thesis; Doktorgradsavhandling, 2019-06-27)
    Social-ecological systems (SES) consist of a social and an ecological system that are linked through a complex interplay of social and ecological processes. SES can be studied through SES research, which has become increasingly important because it is thought that it can potentially address and solve many societal challenges, such as climate change, resource scarcity, and habitat degradation. SES ...
  • Ecophysiological Responses of Sea Ice Algae and Phytoplankton to a Changing Arctic 

    Kvernvik, Ane Cecilie (Doctoral thesis; Doktorgradsavhandling, 2019-03-29)
    The ice-covered seas of the Arctic have two major types of primary producers; phytoplankton growing in open waters and sea ice algae growing within and on the underside of the sea ice. This thesis investigates the controlling role of light availability on Arctic pelagic and sympagic (i.e. ice-associated) algae, and how light-induced responses are modulated by NO3 and pCO2 levels. A combination of ...
  • Implementation of ecosystem-based ocean management 

    Sander, Gunnar (Doctoral thesis; Doktorgradsavhandling, 2019-03-29)
    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is a holistic approach for nature management that aims at achieving the good health and sustainable use of ecosystems. It is a complex and challenging concept: understanding ecosystems and human impacts upon them is complicated, there are demanding needs for collaboration and harmonisation of approaches and policies, and many conflicting interests must be balanced. ...
  • Causes and consequences of ontogenetic dietary shifts: a global synthesis using fish models 

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Javier; Nunn, Andy D; Adams, Colin Ean; Amundsen, Per-Arne (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-09-24)
    Ontogenetic dietary shifts (ODSs), the changes in diet utilisation occurring over the life span of an individual consumer, are widespread in the animal kingdom. Understanding ODSs provides fundamental insights into the biological and ecological processes that function at the individual, population and community levels, and is critical for the development and testing of hypotheses around key concepts ...
  • The transformation of the oceans and the future of marine social science 

    Arbo, Peter; Knol, Maaike; Linke, Sebastian; St. Martin, Kevin John (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-04-13)
    The oceans have become a juncture of great visions of blue growth as well as strong environmental concern. This paper discusses the essential role of the social sciences as the oceans increasingly emerge as a contested social arena. The marine social sciences have generated a vast knowledge about the development of fisheries and the implications of fisheries policies on coastal communities. We review ...
  • Policy Support for Women Entrepreneurs' Access to Financial Capital: Evidence from Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States 

    Coleman, Susan; Henry, Colette; Orser, Barbara; Foss, Lene; Welter, Friederike (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-10-22)
    This cross‐country study documents policies and practices designed to increase women entrepreneurs’ access to financial capital in Canada, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States. Drawing on feminist theory, we examine assumptions of policy alongside the eligibility criteria, rules and regulations of practices. Our findings reveal that four of the five country policies examined were predicated ...
  • Prevalence of brucellosis among patients attending Wau Hospital, South Sudan 

    Madut, Nuol Aywel; Nasinyama, George William; Muma, John Bwalya; Sube, Kenneth L L; Ocan, Moses; Muwonge, Adrian; Godfroid, Jacques; Jubara, Ambrose Samuel; Kankya, Clovice (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-06-27)
    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of public health importance; its prevalence varies globally. In low-income countries, brucellosis is an endemic and neglected disease affecting both animals and humans. This study was intended to establish brucellosis sero-prevalence among patients attending Wau hospital, South Sudan. Across sectional study, was done among randomly selected patients attending Wau ...
  • Getting ready for the winter: timing and determinants of molt in an alpine ungulate 

    Déry, F.; Hamel, Sandra; Cote, Steeve D. (Mastergradsoppgave; Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel, 2019-02-14)
    Because growth of new hairs entails energetic costs, individual condition and access to food should determine the timing of molt. Previous studies on the timing of molt in ungulates have mostly focused on the influence of age class and reproductive status, but the effects of body condition and environmental phenology have not been evaluated. Our goal was to assess how intrinsic traits and environmental ...
  • A life after Research? First Release of Harp Seals (Phoca groenlandica) after Temporary Captivity for Scientific Purposes 

    Blanchet, Marie-Anne; Acquarone, Mario; Biuw, Martin; Larsen, Roger B.; Nordøy, Erling Sverre; Folkow, Lars (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-07-08)
    Three wild-caught female harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) from the Greenland Sea stock were brought into temporary captivity in connection with a controlled validation study on energetics. The two pups and one adult were kept in two indoor and outdoor experimental facilities approved by the Norwegian Animal Research Authority. They were trained daily using operant conditioning to participate ...

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