Brucella spp. at the wildlife-livestock interface: An evolutionary trajectory through a livestock-to-wildlife "host jump"?
Brucella infections in wildlife have gained a lot of interest from the scientific community and different stakeholders. These interests are often different and sometimes conflicting. As a result, different management perspectives and aims have been implemented (One Health, public health, veterinary public health, maintenance of a brucellosis free status in livestock, sustainable wildlife harvesting by hunters, wildlife and environmental health). When addressing Brucella infection in wildlife, the most important features of Brucella infection should be considered and the following questions need to be answered: (1) Is Brucella infection a result of a spillover from livestock or is it a sustainable infection in one or more wildlife host species? (2) Did the epidemiological situation of Brucella infection in wildlife change over time and, if so, what are the main drivers of change and does it impact the wildlife population dynamics? (3) Does Brucella infection in wildlife represent a reservoir of Brucella strains for livestock? (4) Is Brucella infection in wildlife of zoonotic concern? These questions point to the fundamental biological question of how animal (domestic and wildlife)/Brucella spp. partnerships are established. Will we be able to decipher an evolutionary trajectory through a livestock-to-wildlife “host jump”? Whole genome sequencing and new “omics” techniques will help in deciphering the molecular basis of Brucella host preference and open new avenues in brucellosis management aimed at preventing opportunities for Brucella host jumps.
Source at https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5030081 .