Symmetric Non-Negative Forms and Sums of Squares
We study symmetric non-negative forms and their relationship with symmetric sums of squares. For a fixed number of variables n and degree 2d, symmetric non-negative forms and symmetric sums of squares form closed, convex cones in the vector space of n-variate symmetric forms of degree 2d. Using representation theory of the symmetric group we characterize both cones in a uniform way. Further, we investigate the asymptotic behavior when the degree 2d is fixed and the number of variables n grows. Here, we show that, in sharp contrast to the general case, the difference between symmetric non-negative forms and sums of squares does not grow arbitrarily large for any fixed degree 2d. We consider the case of symmetric quartic forms in more detail and give a complete characterization of quartic symmetric sums of squares. Furthermore, we show that in degree 4 the cones of non-negative symmetric forms and symmetric sums of squares approach the same limit, thus these two cones asymptotically become closer as the number of variables grows. We conjecture that this is true in arbitrary degree 2d.
CitationBlekherman G, Riener C. Symmetric Non-Negative Forms and Sums of Squares. Discrete & Computational Geometry. 2020
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