Winter quarters of wetland ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in South Scandinavia
Sites at various distances from eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes and fens on the island Öland in southern Sweden were systematically surveyed in summer (May–August) and autumn (late September–October) to elucidate the hibernation sites of wetland carabid beetles. Thirty-five of 47 wetland species were found in their winter quarters. In areas ≤50 m from the lakes and fens, the observed as well as the estimated number of hibernating wetland species was higher in mesic to dry sites than in wet or moist open sites. Very few overwintering beetles were detected far (≥120 m) from the water. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of macropterous and dimorphic (brachypterous) species and individuals hibernating close to, and more distantly from, water. Individuals of small species hibernated closer to water than larger ones. At least in Scandinavia, there is no convincing evidence that wetland species hibernate far away from water, migrating by flight. A considerable number of the species that were collected in their winter quarters are rare and red- listed in at least one of the Scandinavian countries. Winter quarters situated in mesic and dry meadows and woodland close to lakes and fens had the highest number of red-listed species. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to protect such sites. Threats to the integrity of the current habitats are logging and various transformations of meadows, e.g. digging and removal of large objects such as stones. Cessation of grazing by cattle may also have a negative effect.
SiteringJournal of Insect Conservation 15(2011) nr. 6 s. 799-810
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