The USSR/Russia, Norway and international co-operation on environmental matters in the Arctic, 1984-1996
This thesis examines the USSR, Norway and international cooperation on environmental matters in the Arctic (1984-1996). During the Cold War, the region attracted much attention from of the main adversaries. It was a playground for strategic planners and a laboratory for the improvement of military technology. But at the same time these territories were also – at least potentially – a source for contacts between scientist of the East and the West. Especially in the last decade of the Cold War, scientists from both blocks more aware of the vulnerability of the environment and the intensification of exploration of natural resources. The Arctic, which was a highly militarized region during the Cold War, can thereby serve a good case to test out the impact of international cooperation. This thesis considers two main areas: the first area is about the historical development of political relations between USSR/Russia and Norway; Gorbachev’s policies contribution to the development of cooperation in international relations in the Arctic. The second area is about scientific environmental cooperation, which has can be described as transnational in scope and character, and its influence to the political situation in the Arctic. The thesis based on two theoretical approaches: the so-called “Copenhagen school”, and especially the concept of “securitization” on the one hand, and transnationalism theory on the other. The concept of securitization demonstrates the important transition from military security to environmental security in the Arctic region. Transnationalism shows how the joint the problem of the protection of the Arctic environment managed to bring the international works of scientists, independent organizations, states closer in some aspects. The thesis is based on case-study, it is qualitative study. It draws on a variety sources, where Russian articles, especially dissertations play a crucial role. The text starts from introduction chapter, focusing on theory and methodology, followed by four chapters and ends with a concluding chapter, which discusses the findings of this work.
ForlagUniversitetet i Tromsø
University of Tromsø
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