Survey of artisanal fishing gear and craft. A case study of Kainji Lake lower basin, Nigeria
ForfatterOgundiwin, Damilare Ibukun
Despite the considerable importance of artisanal fishing in Kainji Lake lower basin, knowledge about gear and craft being used is deficient and outdated. Little is also known as to why fishermen adopted the diverse fishing gear and craft they use in the Lake, as well as the relationship of these input factors to the socio-economic status of the fishermen and ecology of the lake. To address these issues, a survey of sixty (60) artisanal fishers and twelve (12) village leaders drawn from 12 selected communities was undertaken. The survey was performed as a structured questionnaire to the fishers, and as unstructured interviews with the heads of the fishing villages (Maigari). The data collected were analyzed in a dual way: as general statistics of the population of fishers (aggregate analysis), and as multi-dimensional statistics of the individual respondents (respondent analysis). The survey showed that the commonest gear are gill nets, cast nets, hooks and line, traps, surrounding nets, beach seines and lift nets. The kind of craft used in the region is planked canoe (paddle and mechanized) with flat bottom hull, and ownership varies across fishermen. Fish diversity is high, and along this survey # species (# families) were detected. There was a trend for association of species to types of fishing gear, and each fisher could own a number of gear types in different amounts. The most frequent species in the catches is x, but in terms of biomass y seems to be the most important, while Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is relevant for fishers is because of its commercial value. The Hausa ethnic group is dominant in number among the resident fishers. Relationship between gear types and socio-economic status of the fishers revealed inter alia that fishermen that use gill nets, cast nets and hook & line tend to have larger households, belong to a cooperative society, married and older than their counterparts. Settled older fishers are often members of the local cooperative group (fadama), an organization that seems to be less interesting or inclusive for young fishers or outsiders. This seems to exclude these workers from access to credit. The fishers generated a relatively good (gross) income compared to e.g. civil servants in of the state. The majority of the fishers, particularly the settled older men, are part-time in fishing with the possibility of pursuing other activities to generate income. There was contradiction in the opinions of most fishers and village leaders concerning the status and trends of the fisheries in the basin. Further research is needed to provide a better understanding on: (i) dynamics of change of gear with respects to daily or seasonal occurrence; (ii) social dynamics of the fishery.
ForlagUiT The Arctic University of Norway
UiT Norges arktiske universitet
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