Upgrading technologies for biogas production plants. Overview and life cycle cost analysis of available technologies
ForfatterBrendeløkken, Hanne Wasmuth
An increased focus on waste management has emerged during the last decade. Renewable energy, efficient energy usage and cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are highly prioritized by the EU. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the World Energy Council estimates that the global energy demand will grow within the next decades. The continuously increasing energy demand, contributes to development of new technologies for utilization of alternative energy resources. Energy resources with low environmental impact should be utilized to achieve a sustainable development. Biogas production from organic waste has shown to be more environmentally friendly compared to other waste handling options such as composting, incineration and landfilling. Biogas production from organic waste is a treatment technology that generates renewable energy in forms of biogas, and recycles organic waste as a fertilizer and soil amendment. The results of several studies show that the best climate benefit is achieved when biogas is upgraded to biomethane and substituted with diesel. Upgrading of biogas to biomethane is performed in the upgrading system, which is an optional process in a biogas production plant. Chemical scrubber, water scrubber, organic physical scrubber, membrane, pressure swing adsorption and cryogenic upgrading are different types of commercially used biogas upgrading technologies. The total life cycle cost for an upgrading plant is affected by different factors. This includes the investment cost and the operation and maintenance cost. There are three major consumables included in the operating cost; power, water and chemicals. In this thesis, ten different small-scale upgrading plants based on five different upgrading technologies are investigated. A life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is conducted for all the different upgrading technologies in order to find the most cost-effective system. Two different scenarios are analyzed; one where excess heat from the upgrading units is utilized, and one without heat recovery of the excess heat. By including heat recovery in the LCCA, it is possible to compare different upgrading technologies with respect to the whole biogas production plant. The data used in the analysis are collected from various manufacturers for biogas upgrading plants. All the costs associated with the investment, operation and maintenance are identified and used in the LCCA. The collected data was given either as a fixed average number, or as a range with a minimum and maximum value. To account for the uncertainties in the data, an uncertainty analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. For this aim, statistical approaches were used by developing different codes in Matlab to perform the uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is done in order to test the outcome of the LCCA by changing the electricity cost and discount rate in the initial analysis. Results from this thesis is applicable for companies considering investing in a biogas upgrading plant. Information regarding the cost and consumables for different technologies are presented. Electricity price and access to water and chemicals, may affect the decision-making for selection of biogas upgrading technology. The LCCA shows that pressure swing absorption and water scrubber are the most cost-effective upgrading technologies for both with and without heat recovery. The least cost-effective technologies was found to be the cryogenic upgrading and amine scrubber.
ForlagUiT The Arctic University of Norway
UiT Norges arktiske universitet
MetadataVis full innførsel
Følgende lisensfil er knyttet til denne innførselen:
Viser innførsler relatert til tittel, forfatter og emneord.
Diabetes Automata For Diabetes-Related Applications: Software Engine For Blood Glucose Level Simulation Agafonov, Aleksandr (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2015-07-10)Diabetes Automata is a try of concept in the complex research-field of blood glucose simulation and prediction in experimental medical informatics, an experimental research project in software engineering combined with experimental health science. The project integrates together topics such as software system design and development, object-oriented programming, mobile application development, ...
Innovation and commercialization potential of university-developed arctic ice-tethered platforms. A case study of research-based technology Agwu, Ukeje Jacob; Logvinovskaya, Anna; Phetchpinkaew, Gorn (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2017-05-31)The Arctic is a region which is rapidly opening up for business opportunities. However, research has been abundant here for a long time. With this situation comes the avenue to transition technology used in the region from research to commercial purposes. In this thesis, a business case is developed to show the commercial potential of research-based technology. The case technology was developed by ...
Analysis of potential critical equipment and technical system on a modern PSV. Recommending a method for Troms Offshore Management AS Løvmo, Signy Anita (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2016-06-01)This thesis is a part of a master’s degree in Technology and Safety in the High North at the University of Tromsø- The Arctic University of Norway. The thesis has been written during the spring semester of 2016. Safety is a large part of maritime operations and all tools to improve safety and reliability is considered. Even in these days when economy in the oil related industry is worse than ever. ...