Iron status and anemia in a cohort of youths in Northern Norway. The Fit Futures Study
Background: Adolescents are at risk of developing iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) due to rapid growth and sexual maturation. Objectives: Our objectives were to; (1) examine gender-specific distribution of hemoglobin and ferritin, and whether certain lifestyle factors influence on these; (2) describe the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia, and; (3) investigate the applicability of the WHO-criteria for anemia in adolescents in our population. Methods: Data is gathered from the Fit Futures survey. The survey was conducted in 2010-2011, inviting 1117 students in first year of upper secondary school, and repeated in 2012-2013 inviting all who participated in the former survey. Participants between ages 15-17 in Fit Futures 1 (FF1), with valid Hemoglobin (Hb) values, ferritin<500 and CRP<10 were included; 813 participants in FF1, 561 participants in Fit Futures 2 (FF2). 505 participants met inclusion criteria in both surveys. Participants were considered anemic if Hb<13 for males and Hb<12 for females (WHO guidelines), and iron deficient if ferritin<12. The prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia was compared across surveys. Results: The prevalence of ID and IDA decreased from 9.5% and 4.9% in FF1 to 6.8% and 3.6% in FF2, respectively. Using the 2.5 percentile for Hb as cut-off, the prevalence of anemia was reduced by two thirds in females (from 20.3% to 6.2% in FF1 and 16.8% to 5.6% in FF2). The male prevalence was practically unchanged. Lifestyle factors (junk food, snacks, sweets, vitamin/mineral supplements, physical activity, menstrual cycle length and BMI-classification) have non-consistent effects on Hb and ferritin. Conclusion: ID is common in female adolescents in Northern Norway. The 2.5 percentile cut-off for anemia corresponds well with the WHO-criteria in males, but not in females. Future research should apply the 2.5 percentile for Hb as cut-off value for anemia in adolescent females.
PublisherUiT Norges arktiske universitet
UiT The Arctic University of Norway
MetadataShow full item record
Copyright 2015 The Author(s)
The following license file are associated with this item: