An integrative view of mammalian seasonal neuroendocrinology
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Seasonal neuroendocrine cycles that govern annual changes in reproductive activity, energy metabolism and hair growth are almost ubiquitous in mammals that have evolved at temperate and polar latitudes. Changes in nocturnal melatonin secretion regulating gene expression in the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary stalk are a critical common feature in seasonal mammals. The PT sends signal(s) to the pars distalis of the pituitary to regulate prolactin secretion and thus the annual moult cycle. The PT also signals in a retrograde manner via thyroid‐stimulating hormone to tanycytes, which line the ventral wall of the third ventricle in the hypothalamus. Tanycytes show seasonal plasticity in gene expression and play a pivotal role in regulating local thyroid hormone (TH) availability. Within the mediobasal hypothalamus, the cellular and molecular targets of TH remain elusive. However, two populations of hypothalamic neurones, which produce the RF‐amide neuropeptides kisspeptin and RFRP3 (RF‐amide related peptide 3), are plausible relays between TH and the gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone‐pituitary‐gonadal axis. By contrast, the ways by which TH also impinges on hypothalamic systems regulating energy intake and expenditure remain unknown. Here, we review the neuroendocrine underpinnings of seasonality and identify several areas that warrant further research.
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Dardente, H., Wood, S.H., Ebling, F. & Sáenz de Miera, C. (2019). An integrative view of mammalian seasonal neuroendocrinology. Journal of neuroendocrinology. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 31(5), e12729, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/jne.12729. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.
CitationDardente H, Wood SH, Ebling, Sáenz de Miera. An integrative view of mammalian seasonal neuroendocrinology. Journal of neuroendocrinology. 2019;31(5)
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© 2019 British Society for Neuroendocrinology