Early Evolutionary Selection of NAD Biosynthesis Pathway in Bacteria
AuthorSharma, Suraj; Hsieh, Yin-Chen; Dietze, Jørn; Bockwoldt, Mathias; Strømland, Øyvind; Ziegler, Mathias; Heiland, Ines
Bacteria use two alternative pathways to synthesize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from nicotinamide (Nam). A short, two-step route proceeds through nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) formation, whereas the other pathway, a four-step route, includes the deamidation of Nam and the reamidation of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD) to NAD. In addition to having twice as many enzymatic steps, the four-step route appears energetically unfavourable, because the amidation of NAAD includes the cleavage of ATP to AMP. Therefore, it is surprising that this pathway is prevalent not only in bacteria but also in yeast and plants. Here, we demonstrate that the considerably higher chemical stability of the deamidated intermediates, compared with their amidated counterparts, might compensate for the additional energy expenditure, at least at elevated temperatures. Moreover, comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of the available >6000 bacterial genomes indicate that an early selection of one or the other pathway occurred. The mathematical modelling of the NAD pathway dynamics supports this hypothesis, as there appear to be no advantages in having both pathways.
CitationSharma S, Hsieh H, Dietze J, Bockwoldt M, Strømland Ø, Ziegler M, Heiland I. Early Evolutionary Selection of NAD Biosynthesis Pathway in Bacteria. Metabolites. 2022;12
MetadataShow full item record
Copyright 2022 The Author(s)