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dc.contributor.authorAganovic, Amar
dc.description.abstractThe ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the influenza epidemics have revived the interest in understanding how these highly contagious enveloped viruses respond to alterations in the physicochemical properties of their microenvironment. By understanding the mechanisms and conditions by which viruses exploit the pH environment of the host cell during endocytosis, we can gain a better understanding of how they respond to pH-regulated anti-viral therapies but also pH-induced changes in extracellular environments. This review provides a detailed explanation of the pH-dependent viral structural changes preceding and initiating viral disassembly during endocytosis for influenza A (IAV) and SARS coronaviruses. Drawing upon extensive literature from the last few decades and latest research, I analyze and compare the circumstances in which IAV and SARS-coronavirus can undertake endocytotic pathways that are pH-dependent. While there are similarities in the pH-regulated patterns leading to fusion, the mechanisms and pH activation differ. In terms of fusion activity, the measured activation pH values for IAV, across all subtypes and species, vary between approximately 5.0 to 6.0, while SARS-coronavirus necessitates a lower pH of 6.0 or less. The main difference between the pH-dependent endocytic pathways is that the SARS-coronavirus, unlike IAV, require the presence of specific pHsensitive enzymes (cathepsin L) during endosomal transport. Conversely, the conformational changes in the IAV virus under acidic conditions in endosomes occur due to the specific envelope glycoprotein residues and envelope protein ion channels (viroporins) getting protonated by H+ ions. Despite extensive research over several decades, comprehending the pH-triggered conformational alterations of viruses still poses a significant challenge. The precise mechanisms of protonation mechanisms of certain during endosomal transport for both viruses remain incompletely understood. In absence of evidence, further research is needed.en_US
dc.identifier.citationAganovic. pH-dependent endocytosis mechanisms for influenza A and SARS-coronavirus. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2023en_US
dc.identifier.cristinIDFRIDAID 2234701
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaen_US
dc.relation.journalFrontiers in Microbiology
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2023 The Author(s)en_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)en_US
dc.titlepH-dependent endocytosis mechanisms for influenza A and SARS-coronavirusen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US

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Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Med mindre det står noe annet, er denne innførselens lisens beskrevet som Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)