Lifestyle and venous thromboembolism : a review
Abstract Introduction: The relationship between arterial cardiovascular disease (CVD) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is debated. The knowledge about lifestyle as a risk factor for CVD is substantial, while there are few conclusions are reached on the association between lifestyle and VTE. The aim of this review was to assess whether known cardiovascular lifestyle risk factors also are associated to the risk of VTE. Methods and results: We conducted a PubMed search of the existing literature using key words for venous thromboembolism, cardiovascular disease and lifestyle. All of the lifestyle factors are established risk factors for CVD. Studies on physical activity and VTE have diverging results; being physically active was both associated with decreased and increased risk of VTE. In contrast, body mass index (BMI) is recognized as a risk factor for VTE. Only two studies are conducted on the relationship between diet and VTE, and they reach opposite conclusions. The results on alcohol and VTE were conflicting; this is probably due to different study designs and populations. The only study done on coffee and VTE found no association. Heavy smoking yields an increased risk of VTE. Psychosocial factors have not been investigated in relation to VTE, except self-reported stress, which has been reported to increase the risk of pulmonary embolism. Lastly, high socioeconomic status was inversely associated with VTE risk. Conclusions: BMI is the only clear common risk factor for both CVD and VTE, while more studies on general populations are needed to reach conclusions concerning the other risk factors.
ForlagUniversitetet i Tromsø
University of Tromsø
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