Now showing items 278-297 of 393

    • Radar observations of thermal plasma oscillations in the ionosphere 

      Vierinen, Juha; Gustavsson, Björn Johan; Hysell, David; Sulzer, M.; Perillat, Phil; Kudeki, Erhan (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-06-02)
      Incoherent scatter radar observations of ionospheric plasmas rely on echoes from electron density fluctuations with properties governed by the dispersion relations for ion acoustic and Langmuir waves. Radar observations of echoes associated with Langmuir waves (plasma lines) from thermal plasma are weak, and only a few near‐thermal level measurements have been reported. Plasma line echoes are typically ...
    • Radar studies of ionospheric dusty plasma phenomena 

      Mann, Ingrid; Gunnarsdottir, Tinna; Häggström, Ingemar; Eren, Saliha; Tjulin, Anders; Myrvang, Margaretha; Rietveld, Mike T; Dalin, Peter; Jozwicki, Dorota; Trollvik, Henriette Marie Tveitnes (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-06-17)
      We discuss the influence of charged dust on radar observations in the Earth ionosphere. This region in the upper Earth atmosphere can be described as a partially ionized, low‐temperature plasma. Plasma parameters vary by orders of magnitude spatially and in time. Dust particles influence the charge balance, in some cases dusty plasma condition is met. The polar mesospheric echoes are an example of ...
    • Radiometric temperature reading of a hot ellipsoidal object inside the oral cavity by a shielded microwave antenna put flush to the cheek 

      Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein Ketil; Birkelund, Yngve (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2012)
      A new scheme for detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children has recently been proposed in the literature. The idea is to warm bladder urine via microwave exposure to at least fever temperatures and observe potential urine reflux from the bladder back to the kidney(s) by medical radiometry. As a preliminary step toward realization of this detection device, we present non-invasive temperature ...
    • Range-Doppler Mapping of Space-Based Targets Using the JRO 50 MHz Radar 

      Kesaraju, Saiveena; Mathews, J. D.; Milla, M.; Vierinen, Juha (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-12-02)
      The Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) two-dimensional square array radar system operating at ~ 6-m wavelength was used to study the Moon and low Earth orbit satellites using the Range-Doppler inverse synthetic aperture radar technique also known as Delay-Doppler imaging. The radar data was collected on Oct 21, 2015. A circularly polarized coded pulse was transmitted from a quarter-array antenna ...
    • Ranking Using Transition Probabilities Learned from Multi-Attribute Data 

      Løkse, Sigurd; Jenssen, Robert (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-09-13)
      In this paper, as a novel approach, we learn Markov chain transition probabilities for ranking of multi-attribute data from the inherent structures in the data itself. The procedure is inspired by consensus clustering and exploits a suitable form of the PageRank algorithm. This is very much in the spirit of the original PageRank utilizing the hyperlink structure to learn such probabilities. ...
    • A red tide in the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean 

      Olsen, Lasse Mork; Duarte, Pedro; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Kauko, Hanna Maria; Johansson, Malin; Peeken, Ilka; Różańska-Pluta, Magdalena; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wagner, Penelope Mae; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Hop, Haakon; Assmy, Phillipp (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2019-07-02)
      In the Arctic Ocean ice algae constitute a key ecosystem component and the ice algal spring bloom a critical event in the annual production cycle. The bulk of ice algal biomass is usually found in the bottom few cm of the sea ice and dominated by pennate diatoms attached to the ice matrix. Here we report a red tide of the phototrophic ciliate <i>Mesodinium rubrum</i> located at the ice-water interface ...
    • The red-sky enigma over Svalbard in December 2002 

      Sigernes, F.; Shumilov, N.; Lloyd, N.; Havnes, O.; Lorentzen, D.A.; Neuber, R.; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Degenstein, D.; Moen, J.; Gjessing, Y.; Skartveit, A.; Raustein, E.; Ørbæk, J.B.; Deehr, C.S. (Journal article; Peer reviewed; Tidsskriftartikkel, 2005-07-27)
      On 6 December 2002, during winter darkness, an extraordinary event occurred in the sky, as viewed from Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E), Svalbard, Norway. At 07:30 UT the southeast sky was surprisingly lit up in a deep red colour. The light increased in intensity and spread out across the sky, and at 10:00 UT the illumination was observed to reach the zenith. The event died out at about 12:30 UT. Spectral ...
    • Reinforced Auto-Zoom Net: Towards Accurate and Fast Breast Cancer Segmentation in Whole-Slide Images 

      Dong, Nanqing; Kampffmeyer, Michael C.; Liang, Xiaodan; Wang, Zeya; Dai, Wei; Xing, Eric P. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-09-20)
      Convolutional neural networks have led to significant breakthroughs in the domain of medical image analysis. However, the task of breast cancer segmentation in whole-slide images (WSIs) is still underexplored. WSIs are large histopathological images with extremely high resolution. Constrained by the hardware and field of view, using high-magnification patches can slow down the inference process and ...
    • Relating Photoelectrochemistry and Wettability of Sputtered Cu- and N-Doped TiO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; Thin Films via an Integrated Approach 

      Garlisi, Corrado; Lai, Chia-Yun; George, Leslie; Chiesa, Matteo; Palmisano, Giovanni (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-06-06)
      We present here an integrated study of the photoelectrochemical and hydrophilic properties of sputtered TiO<sub>2</sub> thin films, enhanced by means of nitrogen (N) and copper (Cu) doping. We investigated the effect that doping has on both photoelectrochemical efficiency and surface properties by employing a variety of techniques spanning from impedance electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to ...
    • Relationship between frequency power spectra and intermittent, large-amplitude bursts in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer 

      Theodorsen, Audun; Garcia, Odd Erik; Kube, Ralph; LaBombard, Brian; Terry, Jim L. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-08-21)
      Fluctuations in the boundary region of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been analyzed using gas puff imaging data from a set of Ohmically heated plasma density scan experiments. It is found that the relative fluctuation amplitudes are modest and close to normally distributed at the separatrix but become increasingly larger and skewed towards the main chamber wall. The frequency power spectra are ...
    • The relationship between small-scale and large-scale ionospheric electron density irregularities generated by powerful HF electromagnetic waves at high latitudes 

      Rietveld, Michael T.; Tereshcenko, E.D.; Khudukon, B.Z.; Brekke, Asgeir; Isham, B.; Hagfors, T. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2006-11-21)
      Satellite radio beacons were used in June 2001 to probe the ionosphere modified by a radio beam produced by the EISCAT high-power, high-frequency (HF) transmitter located near Tromsø (Norway). Amplitude scintillations and variations of the phase of 150- and 400-MHz signals from Russian navigational satellites passing over the modified region were observed at three receiver sites. In several papers ...
    • Relative drift between black aurora and the ionospheric plasma. 

      Blixt, Erik Mårten; Kosch, M.J.; Semeter, J. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel, 2005-07-27)
      Black auroras are recognized as spatially well-defined regions within uniform diffuse aurora where the optical emission is significantly reduced. Although a well studied phenomenon, there is no generally accepted theory for black auroras. One theory suggests that black regions are formed when energetic magnetospheric electrons no longer have access to the loss cone. If this blocking mechanism drifts ...
    • Remote Oxygen Sensing by Ionospheric Excitation (ROSIE) 

      Kalogerakis, K. S.; Gustavsson, Björn Johan; Slanger, T. G.; Rietveld, Michael T; Kendall, E. A.; Pedersen, T. R.; Kosch, M. J. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2009)
    • Remote Sensing of Water Quality Parameters over Lake Balaton by Using Sentinel-3 OLCI 

      Blix, Katalin; Pálffy, Károly; Tóth, Viktor R.; Eltoft, Torbjørn (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-10-11)
      The Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel 3A satellite was launched in February 2016. Level 2 (L2) products have been available for the public since July 2017. OLCI provides the possibility to monitor aquatic environments on 300 m spatial resolution on 9 spectral bands, which allows to retrieve detailed information about the water quality of various type of waters. It has only been ...
    • Results from the intercalibration of optical low-light calibration sources 2011 

      Brändström, B. Urban E.; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Widell, Ola; Hansson, Thord; Whiter, Daniel; Mäkinen, Sanna; Mikhaylova, Daria; Axelsson, Katarina; Sigernes, Fred; Gulbrandsen, Njål; Schlatter, Nicola M.; Gjendem, Amund Gjerde; Cai, L.; Reistad, Jone Peter; Daae, Marianne; Demissie, Teferi Dejene; Andalsvik, Yngvild Linnea; Roberts, Owen; Poluyanov, Stepan Viktorovich; Chernouss, Sergey (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2012-05-03)
      Following the 38th Annual European Meeting on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods in Siuntio in Finland, an intercalibration workshop for optical low light calibration sources was held in Sodankylä, Finland. The main purpose of this workshop was to provide a comparable scale for absolute measurements of aurora and airglow. All sources brought to the intercalibration workshop were compared to the ...
    • Retrieval of sodium number density profiles in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from SCIAMACHY limb emission measurements 

      Langowski, M.P.; von Savigny, C.; Burrows, J.P.; Rozanov, V.V.; Dunker, Tim; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Sinnhuber, M; Aikin, A.C. (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2016-01-28)
      An algorithm has been developed for the retrieval of sodium atom (Na) number density on a latitude and altitude grid from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) limb measurements of the Na resonance fluorescence. The results are obtained between 50 and 150 km altitude and the resulting global seasonal variations of Na are analyzed. The retrieval approach ...
    • Retrieving horizontally resolved wind fields using multi-static meteor radar observations 

      Stober, Gunter; Chau, Jorge L.; Vierinen, Juha; Jacobi, Christoph; Wilhelm, Sven (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-08-27)
      Recently, the MMARIA (Multi-static, Multi-frequency Agile Radar for Investigations of the Atmosphere) concept of a multi-static VHF meteor radar network to derive horizontally resolved wind fields in the mesosphere–lower thermosphere was introduced. Here we present preliminary results of the MMARIA network above Eastern Germany using two transmitters located at Juliusruh and Collm, and five receiving ...
    • A revisit of the Gram-Charlier and Edgeworth series expansions 

      Brenn, Torgeir; Anfinsen, Stian Normann (Preprint; Manuskript, 2017-07-31)
      In this paper we make several observations on the Gram- Charlier and Edgeworth series, which are methods for modeling and approximating probability density functions.We present a simplified derivation which highlights both the similarity and the differences of the series expansions, that are often obscured by alternative derivations. We also introduce a reformulation of the Edgeworth series ...
    • RFEA Measurements of High-Energy Electrons in a Helicon Plasma Device with Expanding Magnetic Field 

      Gulbrandsen, Njål; Fredriksen, Åshild (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-01-26)
      In the inductively coupled plasma of the Njord helicon device we have, for the same parameters as for which an ion beam exists, measured a downstream population of high-energy electrons emerging from the source. Separated measurements of energetic tail electrons was carried out by Retarding Field Energy Analyzer (RFEA) with a grounded entrance grid, operated in an electron collection mode. In a ...
    • Rib waveguides for trapping and transport of particles 

      Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; Helle, Øystein Ivar; Hellesø, Olav Gaute (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2016-02-23)
      Rib waveguides are investigated as an alternative to strip waveguides for planar trapping and transport of microparticles. Microparticles are successfully propelled along the surface of rib waveguides and trapped in the gap between opposing rib waveguides. The trapping capabilities of waveguide end facets formed by a single and opposing waveguide geometries are investigated. The slab beneath a rib ...