Comparative absorption and tissue distribution of 14C-benzo(a)pyrene and 14C-phenanthrene in the polar cod (Boreogadus saida) following oral administration
The Arctic is an important sink for organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) long-range transported from industrial regions. With the retreat of sea ice and increasing anthropogenic activities such as the oil and gas industries, local sources of PAHs are expected to increase both through operational and accidental discharges. There is a need to increase our knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of organic pollutants, in particular PAHs, to evaluate the risk these toxic compounds may represent for Arctic species. The absorption and tissue distribution of 14C-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 14C-phenanthrene (Phen) were studied in the polar cod (Boreogadus saida), a key Arctic species. After a single oral dose of BaP (1.15 ± 0.36 mg/kg fish) or Phen (0.40 ± 0.12 mg/kg fish), corresponding to 0.12 ± 0.03 mCi/kg fish, the tissue distribution was followed through 30 days by means of whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting of liver and bile. For both compounds, radiolabeling was mainly present in the bile and the intestines throughout the study period. Phen-derived radioactivity, however, appeared to be more systemically distributed compared to BaP. Furthermore, a far higher amount of irreversibly bound BaP-derived radioactivity was present in the intestinal mucosa compared to Phen, indicating a more extensive formation of reactive intermediates from the former compared with the latter. Liquid scintillation counting confirmed that radioactivity was present in the liver at all time points for both groups although the levels were low in the BaP group. These results strongly indicated that both compounds and/or their metabolites undergo enterohepatic circulation.
Published version. Source at http://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-015-1816-7.