Local Control and overall survival after frameless radiosurgery: A single center experience
AuthorBilger, Angelika; Frenzel, Florian; Oehlke, Oliver; Wiehle, Rolf; Milanovic, Dusan; Prokic, Vesna; Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca-Ligia
Introduction Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been increasingly advocated for 1–3 small brain metastases. The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical results in patients with brain metastases treated with LINAC-based SRS using a thermoplastic mask (non-invasive fixation system) and Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT).
Material and Methods In this single-institution study 48 patients with 77 brain metastases were treated between February 2012 and January 2014. The prescribed dose was 20 Gy or 18 Gy as a single fraction. SRS was performed with a True Beam STX Novalis Radiosurgery LINAC (Varian Medical Systems). The verification of positioning was done using the BrainLAB ExacTrac ® X-ray 6D system and cone-beam CT.
Results In 69 of 77 treated brain metastases (90%) the follow-up was documented on MR imaging performed every 3 months. Mean follow-up time was 10.86 months. Estimated 1-year local control was 83%, using the Kaplan-Meier method. In 7/69 brain metastases (10%) local failure (LF) was diagnosed. Median progression free survival (PFS) was 3.73 months, largely due to distant brain relapse. A GTV of ≤2.0 cm3 was significantly associated with a better PFS than a GTV >2.0 cm3. Extracranial stable disease and GTV ≤2.5 cm³ were significant predictors of OS. We observed 2 cases of radiation necrosis diagnosed by histology after surgical resection. No other cases of severe side effects (CTACE ≥ 3) were observed.
Conclusion LINAC-based frameless SRS with the BrainLAB Mask using the BrainLAB ExacTrac ® X-ray 6D system for patient positioning is well tolerated, safe and leads to favorable crude local control of 90%. In our experience, local control after frameless (ringless) SRS is as good as ring-based SRS reported in literature. Without invasive head fixation, radiotherapy is more comfortable for patients.