C-reactive protein and risk of venous thromboembolism: Results from a population-based case-crossover study
AuthorGrimnes, Gro; Isaksen, Trond; Tichelaar, Ynse Ieuwe Gerardus Vladimir; Brox, Jan; Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas; Hansen, John-Bjarne
Long-term, low-grade inflammation does not seem to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The impact of acute inflammation, regardless of cause, on risk of venous thromboembolism is scarcely studied. We aimed to investigate the impact of acute inflammation, assessed by C-reactive protein, on short-term risk of venous thromboembolism. We conducted a case-crossover study of patients with venous thromboembolism (n=707) recruited from a general population. Information on triggers and C-reactive protein levels were retrieved from hospital records during the 90 days before the event (hazard period) and in four preceding 90 day control periods. Conditional logistic regression was used to obtain β coefficients for change in natural log (ln) transformed C-reactive protein from control to hazard periods and to determine corresponding odds ratios for venous thromboembolism. Median C-reactive protein was 107 mg/L in the hazard period, and ranged from 7 mg/L to 16 mg/L in the control periods. The level of C-reactive protein was 58% (95% CI 39-77%) higher in the hazard period than in the control periods. A one-unit increase in ln-C-reactive protein was associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.48-2.16). The risk estimates were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for immobilization and infection. In stratified analyses, ln-C-reactive protein was associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism in cases with (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.01-2.38) and without infection (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.22-2.57). In conclusion, we found that acute inflammation, assessed by C-reactive protein, was a trigger for venous thromboembolism.
This is the published version of the following article: Grimnes, G., Isaksen, T., Tichelaar, Y.I.G.V., Brox, J., Brækkan, S.K. & Hansen, J.B. (2018). C-reactive protein and risk of venous thromboembolism: Results from a population-based case-crossover study. Haematologica, 103(7), 1245-1250. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.186957, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.186957.