Prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes 5 years postpartum using 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 14-16 Weeks' gestation
AuthorLekva, Tove; Godang, Kristin; Michelsen, Annika E.; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Normann, Kjersti R.; Norwitz, Errol R.; Tore, Henriksen; Bollerslev, Jens; Roland, Marie; Ueland, Thor
Early detection and treatment of women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could improve perinatal and long-term outcomes in GDM women and their offspring. We explored if a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 14-16 weeks of gestation could identify women who will (1) develop GDM or give birth to large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies in 1031 pregnant women from the STORK study using different diagnostic criteria (WHO1999, IADPSG2010, WHO2013, NORWAY2017) and (2) develop pre-diabetes 5 years postpartum focusing on first trimester β-cell function in a separate study of 300 women from the STORK cohort. The sensitivity of the 14-16 week OGTT to identify women who would develop GDM or have LGA babies was low, and we could not identify alternative cut-offs to exclude women not at risk or identify women that could benefit from early intervention. First trimester β-cell function was a stronger determinant than third trimester β-cell function of predicting maternal pre-diabetes. In conclusion, in our normal low-risk population, the 75 g OGTT at 14-16 weeks is insufficient to identify candidates for early treatment of GDM or identify women not likely to develop GDM or have LGA babies. First trimester β-cell function may predict pre-diabetes 5 years postpartum.