Paralithocins, Antimicrobial Peptides with Unusual Disulfide Connectivity from the Red King Crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus
AuthorMoe, Morten Kaare; Haug, Tor; Sydnes, Magne Olav; Sperstad, Sigmund; Li, Chun; Vaagsfjord, Lena Christine; de la Vega, Enrique; Stensvåg, Klara
As part of an ongoing exploration of marine invertebrates as a source of new antimicrobial peptides, hemocyte extracts from the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, were studied. Three cationic cysteine (Cys)-rich peptides, named paralithocins 1–3, were isolated by bioassay-guided purification, and their amino acid sequences determined by Edman degradation and expressed sequences tag analysis. Disulfide bond mapping was performed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The peptides (38–51 amino acids in length) share a unique Cys motif composed of eight Cys, forming four disulfide bridges with a bond connectivity of (Cys relative position) Cys1–Cys8, Cys2–Cys6, Cys3–Cys5, and Cys4–Cys7, a disulfide arrangement that has not been previously reported among antimicrobial peptides. Thus, paralithocins 1–3 may be assigned to a previously unknown family of antimicrobial peptides within the group of Cys-rich antimicrobial peptides. Although none of the isolated peptides displayed antimicrobial activity against the target strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus, they inhibited the growth of several marine bacterial strains with minimal inhibitory concentrations in the 12.5–100 μM range. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that marine organisms are a valuable source for discovering bioactive peptides with new structural motifs.
Submitted manuscript version. Published version available at https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00780. With permission from Moe, M.K., Haug, T., Sydnes, M.O., Sperstad, S.V., Li, C., Vaagsfjord, L.C., ... Stensvåg, K. (2018). Paralithocins, Antimicrobial Peptides with Unusual Disulfide Connectivity from the Red King Crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus. Journal of natural products, 81(1), 140-150. Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society.