Acceptability of an mHealth app intervention for persons with type 2 diabetes and its associations with initial self-management: Randomized controlled trial
AuthorTorbjørnsen, Astrid; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Jenum, Anne Karen; Årsand, Eirik; Ribu, Lis
Background: Mobile health interventions are increasingly used in health care. The level of acceptability may indicate whether and how such digital solutions will be used.
Objective: This study aimed to explore associations between the level of acceptability of a mobile diabetes app and initial ability of self-management for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited from primary health care settings to a 3-armed randomized controlled trial in the Norwegian study in the RENEWING HEALTH project. At the 1-year follow-up, 75 out of 101 participants from the intervention groups completed an acceptability questionnaire (The Service User Technology Acceptability Questionnaire). In the randomized controlled trial, the 2 intervention groups (n=101 in total) received a mobile phone with a diabetes diary app, and one of the groups received additional health counseling given by telephone calls from a diabetes specialist nurse (n=50). At baseline, we collected clinical variables from medical records, whereas demographic data and self-management (The Health Education Impact Questionnaire) measures were self-reported. Log data from the use of the app by self-monitoring were registered continuously. Associations between initial ability to self-manage at baseline and acceptability of the diabetes diary app after 1 year were analyzed using linear regression.
Results: We found statistically significant associations between 5 of the 8 self-management domains and perceived benefit, one of the acceptability factors. However, when adjusting for age, gender, and frequency of use, only 1 domain, skill and technique acquisition, remained independently associated with perceived benefit. Frequency of use of the app was the factor that revealed the strongest association with the acceptability domain perceived benefit.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that persons with diabetes may accept the app, despite its perceived benefit being associated with only one of the 8 domains of their initial level of self-management.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01315756; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01315756 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6z46qPhWl)