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dc.contributor.authorLund, Eiliv
dc.contributor.authorBusund, Lill-Tove Rasmussen
dc.contributor.authorThalabard, Jean-Christophe
dc.date.accessioned2019-05-14T09:29:11Z
dc.date.available2019-05-14T09:29:11Z
dc.date.issued2018-08-23
dc.description.abstractThe theory of breast cancer as a <i>child deficiency disease</i> is an <i>inversion of the current paradigm</i>, which considers fullterm pregnancies to be a protective factor and uses nulliparous women as the reference group. Instead, the theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease says that women with the highest parity (about 20, which is the limit of human fertility) are those with the lowest risk and should be used as the reference group in risk estimations. This theory is explained biologically by converting parity from the simple value of number of children into an understanding of the long-lasting biological and immunological effects of pregnancy. These effects can be reflected, as measured by functional genomics, in gene expression of the immune cells in the blood. Each pregnancy represents a unique <i>fetus or semi-allograft</i>, which provokes the creation and deposit of memory cell clones in the mother. Gene expression levels have been found to change linearly with number of full-term pregnancies in healthy women, <i>but not in breast cancer patients</i>. High hormone levels are necessary for a successful pregnancy, as they modulate the immune response from adaptive to innate in order to protect the fetus (considered as a semi-allograft) from rejection. At the end of the pregnancy, hormone levels drop, and the immune system recognizes the semi-allograft, but not in time for rejection to occur before birth. High hormones levels are also classified as carcinogens illustrating that carcinogenesis in the breast could be viewed as a war or balance between later exposures to hormonal carcinogens and the protection of the immune system. We propose that breast tumors are <i>pseudo semi-allografts</i> made up of transformed breast tissue cells. Assuming that the sensitivity to the exposure to increased levels of endogenous or exogenous hormones in women with breast cancer mimic those that occur in pregnancy, these <i>breast tumor cells are protected</i> against the body’s immune reaction, just as the fetus is during pregnancy. However, with more pregnancies, the potential to eradicate the pseudo semi-allograft might increase due to enhanced immune surveillance. The theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease proposes that the protective effect of pregnancy on breast cancer incidence via the immune system is independent of other risk factors.en_US
dc.descriptionSource at <a href=https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2018.08.015>https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2018.08.015. </a>en_US
dc.identifier.citationLund, E., Busund, L-T.R. & Thalabard, J-C. (2018). Rethinking the carcinogenesis of breast cancer: The theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease or a pseudo semi-allograft. <i>Medical Hypotheses, 120</i>, 76-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2018.08.015en_US
dc.identifier.issn0306-9877
dc.identifier.issn1532-2777
dc.identifier.otherFRIDAID 1615357
dc.identifier.other10.1016/j.mehy.2018.08.015
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10037/15297
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.relation.journalMedical Hypotheses
dc.rights.accessRightsopenAccessen_US
dc.subjectBreast canceren_US
dc.subjectTheoryen_US
dc.subjectSemi-allograften_US
dc.subjectIntegrated systems epidemiologyen_US
dc.subjectParity Immune responseen_US
dc.subjectPseudo semi-allograften_US
dc.subjectVDP::Medical disciplines: 700::Health sciences: 800::Epidemiology medical and dental statistics: 803en_US
dc.subjectVDP::Medisinske Fag: 700::Helsefag: 800::Epidemiologi medisinsk og odontologisk statistikk: 803en_US
dc.titleRethinking the carcinogenesis of breast cancer: The theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease or a pseudo semi-allograften_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typeTidsskriftartikkelen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US


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