High lactose whey cheese consumption and risk of colorectal cancer - The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study
AuthorBarnung, Runa Borgund; Jareid, Mie; Lukic, Marko; Oyeyemi, Sunday Oluwafemi; Rudolfsen, Jan Håkon; Sovershaeva, Evgeniya; Skeie, Guri
The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has increased among Norwegian women, and is among the highest in the world. In order to understand this increase, country specific dietary exposures have been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between consumption of brown cheese, a common bread topping in Norway, and colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer in the prospective Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study. Data on brown cheese consumption and adjustment factors was available for 82 527 women. During a mean of 14.6 years of follow-up (1.2 million person-years), there were 1360 cases of colorectal cancer (907 colon; 453 rectal). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer sites. We modelled restricted cubic splines with 4 knots, to assess a possible non-linear relationship between brown cheese intake and the investigated cancer sites. In the age-adjusted model, consumption of more than 2 slices (>16 grams) of brown cheese per day was associated with 13% reduced risk of colon cancer (95% CI 4%-21%) compared to women who did not consume brown cheese. The multivariable-adjusted model, however, showed no association between brown cheese consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer (colorectal: HR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.76–1.13, p-trend 0.37; colon: HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.65–1.06; p-trend = 0.10; rectal: HR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.84–1.1.61, p-trend = 0.41). In this large, prospective cohort study of women, consumption of brown cheese was suggestively protective against colon cancer. However, adjustment attenuated the inverse risk association. Brown cheese consumption was not associated with rectal cancer, or colorectal cancer overall.
Source at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36445-6.