Does the Flipped Classroom Improve Student Learning and Satisfaction? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
We searched and meta-analyzed studies comparing flipped classroom teaching with traditional, lecture-based teaching to evaluate the evidence for the flipped classroom’s influence on continuous-learning measures, pass/fail rates, and student evaluations of teaching. Eight electronic reference databases were searched to retrieve relevant studies. Our results indicate a small effect in favor of the flipped classroom on learning (Hedges’ g = 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.31, 0.40], k = 272). However, analyses restricted to studies with sufficient power resulted in an estimate of 0.24 (95% CI [0.18, 0.31], k = 90). Effects on pass rates (odds ratio = 1.55, 95% CI [1.34, 1.78], k = 45) and student satisfaction (Hedges’ g = 0.16, 95% CI [0.06, 0.26], k = 69) were small and also likely influenced by publication bias. There is some support for the notion that the positive impact on learning may increase slightly if testing student preparation is part of the implementation.