Ranking of substances for monitoring in foods, drinks and dietary supplements - based on risk and knowledge gaps
AuthorSteffensen, Inger-Lise; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Husøy, Trine; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Mathisen, Gro Haarklou; Ørnsrud, Robin; Agdestein, Angelika; Bodin, Johanna Eva; Elvevoll, Edel O.; Hessen, Dag Olav; Hofshagen, Merete; Krogdahl, Åshild; Nilsen, Asbjørn Magne; Rafoss, Trond; Skjerdal, Olaug Taran; Velle, Gaute; Wasteson, Yngvild; Hemre, Gro Ingunn; Vandvik, Vigdis; Alexander, Jan
The substances requested to be included were food additives and flavourings, substances used in food contact materials, environmental contaminants, process-induced substances and natural toxins. Substances not to be included were veterinary medicine residues, illegal pharmaceuticals and pesticide residues.
The overview provided by VKM included substances belong to the following groups and subgroups of substances:
- Natural toxins; with the sub-groups mycotoxins, plant toxins, marine and freshwater algae toxins
- Metals and metalloids
- Persistent organic pollutants (POPs); with the sub-groups brominated flame retardants, dechloranes, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs), perfluorinated and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and siloxanes
- Substances in food contact materials; with the sub-groups bisphenols and phthalates
- Additives; with the sub-groups nitrites and nitrates, phosphates, sweeteners and synthetic antioxidants
- Process-induced contaminants; with the sub-groups acrylamide, esterified 3- and 2- monochloropropane-1,2-diol (MCPD), glycidyl fatty esters (GEs), furans, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
- «Other substances»
- Trace elements
The ranking of the substances is based on inherent toxicity (hazard) and level of exposure (both occurrence and intake). In addition, vulnerable groups, adequacy of toxicity data and lack of exposure data were considered. A simple methodology was chosen. More advanced methodology may be used in later updates of this ranking, if found useful.