Weight underestimation linked to anxiety and depression in a cross-sectional study of overweight individuals in a Sami and non-Sami Norwegian population: the SAMINOR Study
Design: Population-based cross-sectional study.
Setting: The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study with participants from 10 municipalities in Northern Norway enrolled between 2012 and 2014.
Participants: The study included 3266 adults of multiethnic rural origin with overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2) whereof 1384 underestimated their weight (42%).
Primary and secondary outcome measures: Primary outcome measure was symptoms of anxiety and depression and secondary outcome measures were BMI and the demographic variables: sex, age, education and marital status.
Results: A higher proportion of Sami men compared with non-Sami men were obese, and reported more symptoms of anxiety and depression. More men than women, and a higher proportion of Sami women compared with non-Sami women, underestimated their weight. Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed that women were less likely to underestimate their weight compared with men (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.55 in Sami and OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.42 in non-Sami), higher BMI was protective against weight underestimation (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.75 in Sami and OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.67 in non-Sami), slightly higher odds of weight underestimation were observed with increasing age in both ethnic groups (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.05 in Sami and OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03 in non-Sami), while higher education lowered the odds in non-Sami (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.87). Weight underestimation was protectively associated with anxiety and depression in Sami men (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.84) and in non-Sami women (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) adjusted for age, BMI, education and marital status.
Conclusions: Independent of ethnicity, more men than women underestimated their weight. Underestimation of weight was protectively associated with anxiety and depression in Sami men and non-Sami women.