Commentary 3 to the manifesto for the marine social sciences: unfolding Blue Growth
A marine social science manifesto is inherently an anticipatory exercise; it looks forward to the ocean and coastal challenges that societies are facing, with which marine social scientists are responsible to engage. The concept of Blue Growth that is mentioned in the manifesto (MMSS 1.1.3) and the related Blue Economy concept are also inherently anticipatory; they deal with a desired future for oceans and coasts, which are most explicitly inscribed in national and international ocean strategies (for example, European Commission 2017; FAO 2017). Generally, Blue Growth is a catchphrase that stands for the anticipated sustainable exploitation of ocean and coastal spaces and resources to support economic growth, thereby taking into account ecosystems, biodiversity, and social issues. Obviously, this is an idealized version of growth and sustainability.