ALCAM predicts future cardiovascular death in acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the PLATO trial
AuthorUeland, Thor; Åkerblom, Axel; Ghukasyan, Tatevik; Michelsen, Annika; Becker, Richard C; Bertilson, Maria; Budaj, Andrzej; Cornel, Jan H; Himmelmann, Anders; James, Stefan K; Siegbahn, Agneta; Storey, Robert F; Kontny, Frederic; Aukrust, Pål; Wallentin, Lars
Background and aims - Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is upregulated during inflammation and involved in transmigration of leukocytes and T-cell activation. We hypothesized that ALCAM might be associated with recurrent events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Methods - ALCAM was measured in serum obtained on admission, at discharge, 1 month and 6 months in a subgroup of 5165 patients admitted with ACS and included in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872). The association between ALCAM and the composite endpoint and its components, including cardiovascular (CV) death, non-procedural spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke during 1-year follow-up, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models with incremental addition of clinical risk factors and biomarkers (including high-sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro−B-type natriuretic peptide and growth differentiation factor-15).
Results - The median (Q1-Q3) concentration of ALCAM at admission was 97 (80–116) ng/mL. A 50% higher level of ALCAM on admission was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval [1.00–1.34] p = 0.043) for the composite endpoint in fully adjusted analysis, mainly driven by the association with CV death (HR 1.45 [1.16–1.82] p = 0.0012).
Conclusions - In patients with ACS, admission level of ALCAM was independently associated with adverse outcome including CV death even after adjustment for established inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers.