Smoking-Related Risks of Colorectal Cancer by Anatomical Subsite and Sex
AuthorGram, Inger Torhild; Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loïc
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer due to cigarette smoking differed by anatomical subsite or sex. We analyzed data from 188,052 participants aged 45–75 years (45% men) who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study in 1993–1996. During a mean follow-up period of 16.7 years, we identified 4,879 incident cases of invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma. In multivariate Cox regression models, as compared with never smokers of the same sex, male ever smokers had a 39% higher risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.67) of cancer of the left (distal or descending) colon but not of the right (proximal or ascending) colon (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.18), while female ever smokers had a 20% higher risk (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.36) of cancer of the right colon but not of the left colon (HR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.15). Compared with male smokers, female smokers had a greater increase in risk of rectal cancer with number of pack-years of smoking (P for heterogeneity = 0.03). Our results suggest that male smokers are at increased risk of left colon cancer and female smokers are at increased risk of right colon cancer. Our study also suggests that females who smoke may have a higher risk of rectal cancer due to smoking than their male counterparts.