Impact of respiratory symptoms and oxygen saturation on the risk of incident venous thromboembolism-the Tromsø study.
AuthorBørvik, Trond; Evensen, Line; Morelli, Vania Maris; Melbye, Hasse; Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas; Hansen, John-Bjarne
Objectives: To investigate whether measures of respiratory impairments including respiratory symptoms and SpO2, individually and combined with COPD, were associated with an increased risk of VTE.
Methods: Spirometry, SpO2, and self-reported respiratory symptoms were collected in 8686 participants from the fifth (2001-2002) and sixth (2007-2008) surveys of the Tromsø Study. Incident VTE events were registered from the date of inclusion to December 31, 2016. Cox regression models with exposures and confounders as time-varying covariates (for repeated measurements) were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VTE.
Results: During a median follow-up of 9.1 years, 330 participants developed incident VTE. Subjects with SpO2 ≤ 96% (lowest 20th percentile) had a 1.5-fold higher risk of VTE (adjusted HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.13-1.93) compared with those with SpO2 ≥ 98%. Severe respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, cough, and phlegm) were associated with a 1.4- to 2.0-fold higher risk of VTE compared with no such symptoms. COPD, combined with respiratory symptoms or lowered SpO2, had an additive effect on the VTE risk.
Conclusions: Lowered SpO2 and severe respiratory symptoms were associated with increased VTE risk. COPD combined with respiratory impairments had an additive effect on VTE risk, and may suggest particular attention on VTE preventive strategies in COPD patients with respiratory impairments.