Stanozolol-N-glucuronide metabolites in human urine samples as suitable targets in terms of routine anti-doping analysis
AuthorGöschl, Lorenz; Gmeiner, Günter; Gärtner, Peter; Stadler, Georg; Enev, Valentin; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Guddat, Sven; Forsdahl, Guro
The exogenous anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) stanozolol stays one of the most detected substances in professional sports. Its detection is a fundamental part of doping analysis, and the analysis of this steroid has been intensively investigated for a long time. This contribution to the detection of stanozolol doping describes for the first time the unambiguous proof for the existence of 17-epistanozolol-1′N-glucuronide and 17-epistanozolol-2′N-glucuronide in stanozolol-positive human urine samples due to the access to high-quality reference standards. Examination of excretion study samples shows large detection windows for the phase-II metabolites stanozolol-1′N-glucuronide and 17-epistanozolol-1′N-glucuronide up to 12 days and respectively up to almost 28 days. In addition, we present appropriate validation parameters for the analysis of these metabolites using a fully automatic method online solid-phase extraction (SPE) method already published before. Limits of identification (LOIs) as low as 100 pg/ml and other validation parameters like accuracy, precision, sensitivity, robustness, and linearity are given.