Changes in adiposity, physical activity, cardiometabolic risk factors, diet, physical capacity and well-being in inactive women and men aged 57-74 years with obesity and cardiovascular risk – A 6-month complex lifestyle intervention with 6-month follow-up
AuthorHopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Deraas, Trygve Sigvart; Henriksen, André; Martiny-Huenger, Torsten; Grimsgaard, Sameline
A key challenge in lifestyle interventions is long-term maintenance of favorable lifestyle changes. Middle-aged and older adults are important target groups. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate changes in adiposity, physical activity, cardiometabolic risk factors, diet, physical capacity, and well-being, in inactive middle-aged and older women and men with obesity and elevated cardiovascular disease risk, participating in an interdisciplinary single-arm complex lifestyle intervention pilot study. Participants were recruited from the population-based Tromsø Study 2015–2016 with inclusion criteria age 55–74 years, body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m2, sedentary lifestyle, no prior myocardial infarction and elevated cardiovascular risk. Participants (11 men and 5 women aged 57–74 years) underwent a 6-month intervention of two 1-hour group-sessions per week with instructor-led gradually intensified exercise (endurance and strength), one individual and three 2-hour group counselling sessions with nutritionist (Nordic Nutrition Recommendations) and psychologist (Implementation intention strategies). We investigated changes in adiposity (weight, BMI, body composition, waist circumference), physical activity (self-reported and via physical activity trackers), cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, HbA1c, blood lipids), diet (intake of energy, nutrients, foods), physical capacity (aerobic capacity, muscle strength), and psychological well-being, measured at baseline and end-of-intervention, using mean-comparison paired t-tests. Further, we investigated self-reported healthy lifestyle maintenance six months after end-of-intervention, and monthly changes in daily step count, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total energy expenditure. From baseline to end-of-intervention, there was a mean decrease in weight, BMI, fat mass, waist circumference, intake of total- and saturated fat, and increase in lean mass, lateral pulldown and leg press. We detected no changes in mean levels of physical activity, cardiometabolic risk factors or well-being. Six months after end-of-intervention, 25% responded healthy lifestyle achievement and maintenance, while objectively measured physical activity remained unchanged. The results are useful for development of a protocol for a full-scale trial.