Cardiovascular responses to dynamic and static upper-body exercise in a cold environment in coronary artery disease patients
AuthorValtonen, Rasmus; Hintsala, Heidi; Kiviniemi, Antti; Kentta, Tuomas; Crandall, Craig; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; Perkiomaki, Juha; Hautala, Arto; Jaakkola, Jouni; Ikäheimo, Tiina
Methods - 20 patients with stable CAD performed 30 min of progressive dynamic (light, moderate, and heavy rating of perceived exertion) and static (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction) upper body exercise in cold (− 15 °C) and neutral (+ 22 °C) environments. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiographic (ECG) responses were recorded and rate pressure product (RPP) calculated.
Results - Dynamic-graded upper-body exercise in the cold increased HR by 2.3–4.8% (p = 0.002–0.040), MAP by 3.9–5.9% (p = 0.038–0.454) and RPP by 18.1–24.4% (p = 0.002–0.020) when compared to the neutral environment. Static graded upper-body exercise in the cold resulted in higher MAP (6.3–9.1%; p = 0.000–0.014), lower HR (4.1–7.2%; p = 0.009–0.033), but unaltered RPP compared to a neutral environment. Heavy dynamic exercise resulted in ST depression that was not related to temperature. Otherwise, ECG was largely unaltered during exercise in either thermal condition.
Conclusions - Dynamic- and static-graded upper-body exercise in the cold involves higher cardiovascular strain compared with a neutral environment among patients with stable CAD. However, no marked changes in electric cardiac function were observed. The results support the use of upper-body exercise in the cold in patients with stable CAD.