Biofilm Responsive Zwitterionic Antimicrobial Nanoparticles to Treat Cutaneous Infection
AuthorObuobi, Sybil Akua Okyerewa; Phung, Anna Ngoc; Julin, Kjersti; Johannessen, Mona; Skalko-Basnet, Natasa
To avert the poor bioavailability of antibiotics during S. aureus biofilm infections, a series of zwitterionic nanoparticles containing nucleic acid nanostructures were fabricated for the delivery of vancomycin. The nanoparticles were prepared with three main lipids: (i) neutral (soy phosphatidylcholine; P), (ii) positively charged ionizable (1,2-dioleyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane; D), and (iii) anionic (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho((ethyl-1′,2′,3′-triazole) triethylene glycolmannose; M) or (cholesteryl hemisuccinate; C) lipids. The ratio of the anionic lipid was tuned between 0 and 10 mol %, and its impact on surface charge, size, stability, toxicity, and biofilm sensitivity was evaluated. Under biofilm mimicking conditions, the enzyme degradability (via dynamic light scattering (DLS)), antitoxin (via DLS and spectrophotometry), and antibiotic release profile was assessed. Additionally, biofilm penetration, prevention (in vitro), and eradication (ex vivo) of the vancomycin loaded formulation was investigated. Compared with the unmodified nanoparticles which exhibited the smallest size (188 nm), all three surface modified formulations showed significantly larger sizes (i.e., 222–277 nm). Under simulations of biofilm pH conditions, the mannose modified nanoparticle (PDM 90/5/5) displayed ideal charge reversal from a neutral (+1.69 ± 1.83 mV) to a cationic surface potential (+17.18 ± 2.16 mV) to improve bacteria binding and biofilm penetration. In the presence of relevant bacterial enzymes, the carrier rapidly released the DNA nanoparticles to function as an antitoxin against α-hemolysin. Controlled release of vancomycin prevented biofilm attachment and significantly reduced early stage biofilm formations within 24 h. Enhanced biocompatibility and significant ex vivo potency of the PDM 90/5/5 formulation was also observed. Taken together, these results emphasize the benefit of these nanocarriers as potential therapies against biofilm infections and fills the gap for multifunctional nanocarriers that prevent biofilm infections.