EMMPRIN is associated with S100A4 and predicts patient outcome in colorectal cancer
AuthorBoye, Kjetil; Nesland, Jahn M; Sandstad, Berit; Haugen, Mads Haugland; Mælandsmo, Gunhild; Flatmark, Kjersti
BACKGROUND: Proteolytic enzymes and their regulators have important biological roles in colorectal cancer by stimulating invasion and metastasis, which makes these factors attractive as potential prognostic biomarkers. METHODS: The expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was characterised using immunohistochemistry in primary tumours from a cohort of 277 prospectively recruited colorectal cancer patients, and associations with expression of S100A4, clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome were investigated. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-eight samples (72%) displayed positive membrane staining of the tumour cells, whereas 10 cases (4%) were borderline positive. EMMPRIN expression was associated with shorter metastasis-free, disease-specific and overall survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The prognostic impact was largely confined to TNM stage III, and EMMPRIN-negative stage III patients had an excellent prognosis. Furthermore, EMMPRIN was significantly associated with expression of S100A4, and the combined expression of these biomarkers conferred an even poorer prognosis. However, there was no evidence of direct regulation between the two proteins in the colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW620 in siRNA knockdown experiments. CONCLUSION: EMMPRIN is a promising prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer, and our findings suggest that it could be used in the selection of stage III patients for adjuvant therapy.