Effect of cigarette smoking on serum anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count in women seeking fertility treatment: a prospective cross-sectional study
Design Prospective, cross-sectional study.
Setting Single tertiary care fertility centre.
Participants Women ≤35 years seeking fertility treatment.
Primary outcome measures Serum AMH and AFC.
Results Significant differences were found among current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers for breath CO (F(2,97)=33.32, p<0.0001) and urine cotinine levels (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were found either for serum AMH (F(2,91)=1.19, p=0.309) or total AFC (F(2,81)=0.403, p=0.670) among the three groups. There was no significant correlation between pack years of smoking and serum AMH (r=−0.212, n=23, p=0.166) or total AFC (r=−0.276, n=19, p=0.126). No significant correlation was demonstrated between breath CO and serum AMH (r=0.082, n=94, p=0.216) or total AFC (r=0.096, n=83, p=0.195). Similarly, no significant correlation was demonstrated between urine cotinine levels and serum AMH (r=0.146, n=83, p=0.095) or total AFC (r=−0.027, n=77, p=0.386).
Conclusion We did not find a statistically significant difference in quantitative ovarian reserve markers between current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers which would be clinically meaningful in our study population. We confirmed that self-reported smoking correlates well with quantitatively measured biomarkers of smoking. This validated the self-reported comparison groups to ensure a valid comparison of outcome measures. There was no significant association between biomarkers of smoking and biomarkers of ovarian reserve. We were also unable to demonstrate a correlation between the lifetime smoking exposure and ovarian reserve.