The association between visceral fat and lifestyle factors in an adult population: The Tromsø Study 2015-2016.
AuthorKakuruwo, Geraldine Wadzanai
Introduction: Visceral fat (VAT) is the most metabolically, harmful type of body fat. It is in the abdomen and it surrounds organs like kidneys, pancreas and liver and is associated with higher risk for morbidity. VAT is accurately measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Due to the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, excessive VAT accumulation occurs; therefore, a healthy lifestyle that emphasizes enhanced diet and physical activity can be advantageous for health management Diet is measured with a validated FFQ and Physical activity is measured with an Acti graph accelerometer. The aim of this study is to examine the association between VAT, diet, and objective measures of physical activity in a general adult population from the seventh survey of the Tromsø Study. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used. Data was from the Tromsø7 study (2015-16) and a total of 21083 (65%) participants attended, aged 40-80+. A total of 1903 participants were included in the analysis. VAT was measured with DXA scan, diet data was collected from a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and physical activity by an ACTi Graph accelerometer. Participants with missing data were excluded from the study. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the characteristics of the population and the compliance to NNR and World Health Organization (WHO) physical activity recommendation. To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and diet and physical activity, linear regression analysis was used. All analysis was performed in women and men separately and adjusted for potential covariates (age, education, and smoking status). Results: The average daily energy intake of females was 8594 kilojoules, while that of males was 10122 kilojoules. The median total energy intake for women was 8232, while it was 9783.5 for men. Males were more physically active than women. Visceral fat was negatively associated with total energy intake, vegetables, fruits, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, sugar, alcohol, mild physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Protein, total fat, saturated fat, and sedentary lifestyle were all associated with visceral obesity in a positive manner. Vegetables, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, and saturated fat compliance with Nordic nutrient recommendations was lower. Conclusion: Visceral adipose tissue was negatively associated with diet and MVPA and LPA whilst positively associated with SL. Physical activity is associated with lesser VAT in comparison to diet.
PublisherUiT Norges arktiske universitet
UiT The Arctic University of Norway
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