Landlocked States and the Protection of the Marine Environment – with Special Emphasis on Switzerland
This thesis assesses the obligations of landlocked states (LLSs) to protect the marine environment as a whole. In order to limit the scope, three international instruments are focussed upon: the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the Fish Stocks Agreement (FSA). This thesis then goes one step beyond the existing regulations, and brings the obligations to protect the marine environment in conjunction with the participation in regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs). It is examined what role RFMOs play in the protection of the marine environment and if there is a right for LLSs to accede to RFMOs with the sole interest of marine environmental protection. The focus lies again on the UNCLOS, the CBD, and the FSA. Furthermore, the extension of the powers of RFMOs from fisheries management to additional protection of the marine environment is discussed. In order to understand the role of LLSs in using and protecting the oceans, it is important to know the modalities of the right to transit and the right to access to the sea. It is therefore assessed whether landlocked states have a right to transit and a right to access to the sea, and how these rights are regulated. Throughout the whole thesis, a special emphasis is put on the case of Switzerland. All general discussions regarding rights and obligations of LLSs are adapted to Switzerland’s position as feasibly possible.
PublisherUniversitetet i Tromsø
University of Tromsø
The following license file are associated with this item:
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Arctic Entrance: Opening the door to alternative trajectories for Indigenous housing through a decolonizing of planning practice Stanford, Harriet (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2021-06-15)Indigenous communities across Canada are facing a crisis in housing. In response, new and innovative designs, policies, and programs are being developed in attempt to shift away from harmful colonial-imposed models to ones that advance autonomy, healthy living, and cultural revitalization. This important shift has sparked debate and speculation about what a reclaiming or “decolonization” of planning ...
Salem, Tomas (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2016-12-15)In this thesis I address the challenges of Rio de Janeiro's ongoing public security reform, implemented through the establishment of the Pacifying Police Units (UPPs) in several of the city's favelas since 2009. I suggest that in order to address this problem, it is necessary to understand both the institutional and political context and conditions that the reform is set within, as well as the ...
Stobbs, Rita Østbø; Norø, Nina (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2022-06-13)Tromsø by har stort behov for å kunne tiltrekke seg høykvalifisert arbeidskraft. Denne oppgaven har som formål å undersøke hvilket beslutningsgrunnlag høykvalifiserte arbeidsinnvandrere hadde da de bestemte seg for å flytte til Tromsø fra utlandet på grunn av et jobbtilbud. Hvilke faktorer spilte inn da beslutningen ble tatt og hvilken type informasjon har arbeidsinnvandrerne oppsøkte for å opplyse ...