Landlocked States and the Protection of the Marine Environment – with Special Emphasis on Switzerland
This thesis assesses the obligations of landlocked states (LLSs) to protect the marine environment as a whole. In order to limit the scope, three international instruments are focussed upon: the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the Fish Stocks Agreement (FSA). This thesis then goes one step beyond the existing regulations, and brings the obligations to protect the marine environment in conjunction with the participation in regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs). It is examined what role RFMOs play in the protection of the marine environment and if there is a right for LLSs to accede to RFMOs with the sole interest of marine environmental protection. The focus lies again on the UNCLOS, the CBD, and the FSA. Furthermore, the extension of the powers of RFMOs from fisheries management to additional protection of the marine environment is discussed. In order to understand the role of LLSs in using and protecting the oceans, it is important to know the modalities of the right to transit and the right to access to the sea. It is therefore assessed whether landlocked states have a right to transit and a right to access to the sea, and how these rights are regulated. Throughout the whole thesis, a special emphasis is put on the case of Switzerland. All general discussions regarding rights and obligations of LLSs are adapted to Switzerland’s position as feasibly possible.
ForlagUniversitetet i Tromsø
University of Tromsø
Følgende lisensfil er knyttet til denne innførselen:
Viser innførsler relatert til tittel, forfatter og emneord.
Salem, Tomas (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2016-12-15)In this thesis I address the challenges of Rio de Janeiro's ongoing public security reform, implemented through the establishment of the Pacifying Police Units (UPPs) in several of the city's favelas since 2009. I suggest that in order to address this problem, it is necessary to understand both the institutional and political context and conditions that the reform is set within, as well as the ...
Musubika, Sarah (Master thesis; Mastergradsoppgave, 2017-05-15)When one walks through the various streets of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda, one encounters a diversity of beggars. Among them, are Karamojong women and children stationed at different places, and pleading with by-passers to offer them something. Scenes of Karamojong mothers breast feeding their babies while begging, and always set to run into hiding when they sight city authorities, are common ...
Gracious space: Library programming strategies towards immigrants as tools in the creation of social capital Vårheim, Andreas (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2011)Recent research on the generation of social trust and social capital gives public institutions prominent roles as instruments for creating social capital, the trust and connections between community members that yield collective action. Less is known about specific institutions and the mechanisms involved in creating social capital. In this paper, public library programs directed towards immigrants ...