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  • Integrated framework of load monitoring by a combination of smartphone applications, wearables and point-of-care testing provides feedback that allows individual responsive adjustments to activities of daily living 

    Düking, Peter; Achtzehn, Silvia; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-05-19)
    Athletes schedule their training and recovery in periods, often utilizing a pre-defined strategy. To avoid underperformance and/or compromised health, the external load during training should take into account the individual’s physiological and perceptual responses. No single variable provides an adequate basis for planning, but continuous monitoring of a combination of several indicators of ...
  • The muscle fiber profiles, mitochondrial content, and enzyme activities of the exceptionally well-trained arm and leg muscles of elite cross-country skiers 

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim; Boushel, Robert; Söderlund, Karin; Saltin, Bengt; Holmberg, Hans-Christer (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-08-02)
    As one of the most physically demanding sports in the Olympic Games, crosscountry skiing poses considerable challenges with respect to both force generation and endurance during the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration. The isoforms of myosin in skeletal muscle have long been considered not only to define the contractile properties, but also to determine metabolic ...
  • Prolonged sitting interrupted by 6-min of high-intensity exercise: Circulatory, metabolic, hormonal, thermal, cognitive, and perceptual responses 

    Sperlich, Billy; De Clerck, Ine; Zinner, Christoph; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-10-16)
    The aim was to examine certain aspects of circulatory, metabolic, hormonal, thermoregulatory, cognitive, and perceptual responses while sitting following a brief session of high-intensity interval exercise. Twelve students (five men; age, 22 ± 2 years) performed two trials involving either simply sitting for 180 min (SIT) or sitting for this same period with a 6-min session of high-intensity ...
  • The Training of Olympic Alpine Ski Racers 

    Gilgien, Matthias; Reid, Robert Cortas; Raschner, Christian; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-12-21)
    Alpine combined was the only alpine ski racing event at the first Winter Olympic Games in 1936, but since then, slalom, giant slalom, super-G, downhill, and team events have also become Olympic events. Substantial improvements in slope preparation, design of courses, equipment, and the skills of Olympic alpine skiers have all helped this sport attain its present significance. Improved snow ...
  • Whole-body vibrations associated with alpine skiing: A risk factor for low back pain? 

    Supej, Matej; Ogrin, Jan; Holmberg, Hans-Christer (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-03-09)
    Alpine skiing, both recreational and competitive, is associated with high rates of injury. Numerous studies have shown that occupational exposure to whole-body vibrations is strongly related to lower back pain and some suggest that, in particular, vibrations of lower frequencies could lead to overuse injuries of the back in connection with alpine ski racing. However, it is not yet known which ...
  • Comparison of Long and Short High-Intensity Interval Exercise Bouts on Running Performance, Physiological and Perceptual Responses 

    Valstad, Sverre; Heimburg, Erna von; Welde, Boye; van den Tillaar, Roland (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-12-18)
    This study compared the effects of long (4×4 min) and short intervals (4×8×20 s) of high-intensity interval exercise bouts (HIIT) on running performance, physiological and perceptual responses, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Twelve healthy college students (8 men, 4 women; mean age=22±2 years) performed long (90–95% of peak heart rate) and short intervals (maximal intensity) of ...
  • Recommendations for assessment of the reliability, sensitivity, and validity of data provided by wearable sensors designed for monitoring physical activity 

    Düking, Peter; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-04-30)
    Although it is becoming increasingly popular to monitor parameters related to training, recovery, and health with wearable sensor technology (wearables), scientific evaluation of the reliability, sensitivity, and validity of such data is limited and, where available, has involved a wide variety of approaches. To improve the trustworthiness of data collected by wearables and facilitate comparisons, ...
  • Biological rhythms, chronodisruption and chrono-enhancement: The role of physical activity as synchronizer in correcting steroids circadian rhythm in metabolic dysfunctions and cancer 

    Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Lombardi, Giovanni; Weydahl, Andi; Banfi, Giuseppe (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-06-28)
    Rhythms can be observed at all levels of the biologic integration in humans. The observation that a biological or physiological variable shows a circadian rhythm can be explained by several multifactorial systems including external (exogenous), internal (endogenous) and psychobiological (lifestyle) mechanisms. Our body clock can be synchronized with the environment by external factors, called ...
  • The ambiguity of physical activity, exercise and atrial fibrillation 

    Morseth, Bente; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Ariansen, Inger Kristine Holtermann; Myrstad, Marius; Thelle, Dag Steinar (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-02-07)
    Although commonly associated with cardiovascular disease or other medical conditions, atrial fibrillation may also occur in individuals without any known underlying conditions. This manifestation of atrial fibrillation has been linked to extensive and long-term exercise, as prolonged endurance exercise has shown to increase prevalence and risk of atrial fibrillation. In contrast, more modest physical ...
  • Physiological Comparisons of Elite Male Visma Ski Classics and National Level Cross-Country Skiers During Uphill Treadmill Roller Skiing 

    Sagelv, Edvard Hamnvik; Engseth, Tina; Pedersen, Sigurd; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Mathisen, Gunnar; Heitmann, Kim Arne; Welde, Boye; Thomassen, Tor Oskar; Stoggl, Thomas Leonhard (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-11-16)
    Longer distance cross-country ski (14–220 km) races such as the Visma Ski Classics (VSC) has recently gained attention in addition to the traditional Olympic distances (5–50 km) associated with cross-country (XC) skiing. These long-distance races are characterized by extensive use of the upper body while double poling (DP). While there is a substantial amount of research on Olympic distance XC skiing, ...
  • Communicating public avalanche warnings – what works? 

    Engeset, Rune; Pfuhl, Gerit; Landrø, Markus; Mannberg, Andrea; Hetland, Audun (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-09-20)
    Like many other mountainous countries, Norway has experienced a rapid increase in both recreational winter activities and fatalities in avalanche terrain during the past few decades: during the decade 2008–2017, 64 recreational avalanche fatalities were recorded in Norway. This is a 106% increase from that of the previous decade. In 2013, Norway therefore launched the National Avalanche Warning ...
  • Quantified Soccer Using Positional Data: A Case Study 

    Pettersen, Svein Arne; Johansen, Håvard D.; Baptista, Ivan A. M.; Halvorsen, Pål; Johansen, Dag (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-07-06)
    Performance development in international soccer is undergoing a silent revolution fueled by the rapidly increasing availability of athlete quantification data and advanced analytics. Objective performance data from teams and individual players are increasingly being collected automatically during practices and more recently also in matches after FIFA's 2015 approval of wearables in electronic ...
  • Absentee rates in physical education in high schools: The importance of gender and study programmes 

    Lagestad, Pål Arild; Welde, Boye; Rånes, Vebjørn; Myhre, Hege (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-11-02)
    Little is known about absenteeism in high school physical education (PE) in relation to study programme and gender. This study investigated the impact of gender and study programme on absentee rates in PE by analyzing data, using non-parametric statistical analyses, from the absentee registers for all 6928 students in Nordland Country. The results showed that the absentee rates in PE differed among ...
  • Accelerations and high intensity running in field and assistant football referees during match play 

    Riiser, Amund; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Andersen, Vidar; Sæterbakken, Atle Hole; Frøyd, Christian; Ylvisåker, Einar; Moe, Vegard Fusche (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-06-20)
    <p><i>Objectives</i>: (1) to examine accelerations and high intensity running (HIR) in football field referees (FR) and assistant referees (AR) during football matches and (2) to evaluate fluctuations in accelerations and HIR between first and second half and in 5-min periods.</p> <p><i>Methods</i>: All movements of the referees were measured using a radio-based tracking system during 41 matches ...
  • Influence of different soccer-specific maximal actions on physiological, perceptual and accelerometer measurement loads 

    Dalen, Terje; Øverås, Ørjan; van den Tillaar, Roland; Welde, Boye; von Heimburg, Erna Dianne (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-06-13)
    <p><i>Background</i>: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different soccer-specific maximal actions (Continuous run, Sprint, Sprint with change of direction [Sprint COD], Jump and Shot) upon physiological (oxygen uptake and heart rate) and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) responses and accelerometer load.</p> <p><i>Materials and methods</i>: Ten moderately to ...
  • Position specific player load during match-play in a professional football club 

    Baptista, Ivan; Johansen, Dag; Seabra, André; Pettersen, Svein Arne (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2018-05-24)
    There is a rapid growing body of knowledge regarding physical aspects of a football match due to studies using computer-assisted motion analysis. The present study used time-motion analysis and triaxial-accelerometers to obtain new insights about differences in physical profiles of elite football players across playing-positions. Player performance data in 23 official home matches from a professional ...
  • Learning leadership: becoming an outdoor leader 

    Enoksen, Elisabeth; Lynch, Pip (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-10-19)
    Recent leadership research has demonstrated a need for better understanding the process of becoming a leader because it might be qualitatively different to being a leader. If so, there is likely to be a need for pedagogies designed deliberately to support first-time outdoor leadership experiences and any such pedagogies must be informed by the needs of first-time leaders. Becoming a leader in outdoor ...
  • Chronotype, Physical Activity, and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review 

    Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Weydahl, Andi (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-05-11)
    Background:<br> Many variables related to sport have been shown to have circadian rhythms. Chronotype is the expression of circadian rhythmicity in an individual, and three categories of chronotype are defined: morning types (M-types), evening types (E-types), and neither types (N-types). M-types show earlier peaks of several psychophysiological variables during the day than E-types. The effect ...
  • Evening melatonin in January after changes in hours of habitual exercise during fall among youths living in the subarctic. 

    Weydahl, Andi (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 1994)
    Secretion of the hormone melatonin shows a circadian rhythm and is inhibited by light. Light therapy with phase shifting of the melatonin rhythm has been used as treatment of sleeping problems and seasonal affective disorders (SAD). Exercise has also been shown to suppress the melatonin secretion. In order to investigate the effect of increased level of habitual physical activity upon ...
  • The Responses of Elite Athletes to Exercise: An All-Day, 24-h Integrative View Is Required! 

    Sperlich, Billy; Holmberg, Hans-Christer (Journal article; Tidsskriftartikkel; Peer reviewed, 2017-08-14)
    The current research topics in Frontiers of Physiology include “Training intensity, volume and recovery distribution among elite and recreational endura nce athletes” (Frontiers in Physiology, 2016) and “Wearable Sensor Technology for Monitoring Training Load and Health in the Athletic Population” (Frontiers in Physiology, 2017). As editors of both of these topics, we would like to share some ...

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