Effects of land tenure and protected areas on ecosystem services and land use preferences in Norway
Prior research has examined the relationship between physical landscapes and ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecosystem services by land tenure and protected areas is less developed. We analyze the spatial distribution of participatory mapped ecosystem values, as indicators of ecosystem services, to determine their relationship with land tenure in southern Norway, a region characterized by private, village, and state commons lands overlaid with designated protected areas managed by local governments. We found land tenure to be a significantly stronger predictor of the distribution of ecosystem values and land use preferences than protected area status. Protected area designations layered on older land tenures exert relatively little influence on how Norwegians perceive ecosystem values and land use preferences. The exception is a few iconic parks located on state commons where participants mapped a higher proportion of biological diversity and undisturbed, natural qualities. Hunting and fishing opportunities were especially important in village commons, whereas social interactions, gathering, and cultural identity clustered near settlements on private lands. The cultural ecosystem values of recreation and scenery were most frequently identified, but were unrelated to both land tenure and protected areas. Cabins, tourism development, and snowmobile use were important land uses to regional residents and most controversial in the commons and protected areas, but the overall potential for land use conflict appears highest on private land. Participants mapped preferences to increase predator control across all tenures reflecting the strong interest in large game hunting and livestock grazing in the region. Overlapping tenures that were in place before the designation of protected areas are important for understanding conservation effectiveness and the potential for land use conflict.
Accepted manuscript version. Published version available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.08.018
SiteringLand Use Policy, Volume 49, December 2015, Pages 446–461
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