Cross-cultural values and management preferences in protected areas of Norway and Poland
AuthorBrown, Greg; Hausner, Vera Helene; Grodzińska-Jurczak, Malgorzata; Pietrzyk-Kaszyńska, Agata; Olszańska, Agnieszka; Peek, Barbara; Rechciński, Marcin; Lægreid, Eiliv Jenssen
Protected areas provide important ecosystem services globally but few studies have examined how cultural differences influence the distribution of cultural ecosystem values and management preferences. We used internet-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) in the countries of Norway and Poland to identify ecosystem values and management preferences in protected areas held by regional residents and site users. We found significant differences in the type and quantity of ecosystem values with Norwegians mapping more values relating to use of resources (e.g., hunting/fishing, gathering) and Polish respondents mapping more environmental values such as scenery, biological diversity, and water quality. With respect to management preferences, Norwegians identified more preferences for resource utilization while Polish respondents identified more preferences for conservation. Norwegian respondents were more satisfied with protected area management and local participation which can be explained by historical, legal, and cultural differences between the two countries. For Norway, biodiversity conservation in protected areas will continue to be guided by sustainable use of protected areas, rather than strict nature protection, with management favoring local board control and active public participation. For Poland, change in protected area management to enhance biodiversity conservation is less certain, driven by national environmental values that conflict with local values and preferences, continuing distrust in government, and low levels of civic participation. Differential efficacy in PPGIS methods – Norway with greater participation from household sampling and Poland with greater response using social media – suggest different strategies will be required for effective public engagement in protected area planning and management.