Immediate response in markers of inflammation and angiogenesis during exercise: a randomised cross-over study in heart transplant recipients
AuthorYardley, Marianne; Ueland, Thor; Aukrust, Pål; Michelsen, Annika; Bjørkelund, Elisabeth; Gullestad, Lars; Nytrøen, Kari
Background: The present study explored and compared the immediate responses in markers of inflammation and angiogenesis in maintenance heart transplant (HTx) recipients before, during and after sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The study aimed to explain some of the trigger mechanisms behind HIT in HTx recipients.
Methods: This cross-over study included 14 HTx patients (mean±SD age: 53±13 years; time since HTx, 3±2 years). All participants underwent baseline blood samples and a cardiopulmonary exercise test during their first visit. The next two visits included one HIT session and one MICT session, in randomised order. Blood samples were taken during and after each exercise session. Myokines and inflammatory markers related to vascular inflammation, blood-platelet activation and modulation of angiogenesis were analysed.
Results: The main findings in this study were (1) exercise, regardless of intensity, induced a significant immediate response in several vascular, angiogenetic and in particular platelet-derived inflammatory mediators in HTx recipients. (2) HIT showed trends to induce an increased response in von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-1 and angiopoetin-2, and a decreased response in growth differentiation factor-15, compared with MICT.
Conclusions: This pattern and in particular the trend towards an increased angiogenetic mediator response could contribute to the beneficial effects of HIT in HTx recipients.