Multiple faces of succinate beyond metabolism in blood
Succinate is an essential intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that exerts pleiotropic roles beyond metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Recent evidence obtained in mouse models shows its essential role regulating blood cell function through various mechanisms that include pseudohypoxia responses by hypoxiainducible factor-1α activation, post-translational modifications like succinylation, and communication mediated by succinate receptor 1. Hence, succinate links metabolism to processes like gene expression and intercellular communication. Interestingly, succinate plays key dual roles during inflammatory responses, leading to net inflammation or anti-inflammation depending on factors like the cellular context. Here, we further discuss current suggestions of the possible contribution of succinate to blood stem cell function and blood formation. Further study will be required in the future to better understand succinate biology in blood cells. This promising field may open new avenues to modulate inflammatory responses and to preserve blood cell homeostasis in the clinical setting.