Prognostic Value of Macrophage Phenotypes in Resectable Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Assessed by Multiplex Immunohistochemistry
AuthorRakaee, Mehrdad; Busund, Lill-Tove; Jamaly, Simin; Paulsen, Erna-Elise; Richardsen, Elin; Andersen, Sigve; Al-Saad, Samer; Bremnes, Roy M.; Dønnem, Tom; Kilvær, Thomas Karsten
Macrophages are important inflammatory cells that regulate innate and adaptive immunity in cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are thought to differentiate into two main phenotypes: proinflammatory M1 and protumorigenic M2. Currently, the prognostic impact of TAMs and their M1 and M2 phenotypes is unclear in non–small cell cancer (NSCLC). The present study was set up to evaluate an approach for identifying common M1 and M2 macrophage markers and explore their clinical significance in NSCLC. Using multiplex chromogenic immunohistochemistry, tissue microarrays of 553 primary tumors and 143 paired metastatic lymph nodes of NSCLC specimens were stained to detect various putative macrophage phenotypes: M1 (HLA-DR/CD68), M2 (CD163/CD68), M2 (CD204/CD68), and pan-macrophage (CD68/CK). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationship between TAMs and adaptive/innate immune infiltrates. HLA-DR+/CD68+M1 TAM level significantly decreased from pathological stage I to III. In a compartment-specific correlation analysis, moderate to strong correlations were observed between both TAM subsets (M1 and M2) with CD3-, CD8-, CD4-, and CD45RO-positive immune cells. Survival analyses, in both stromal and intratumoral compartments, revealed that high levels of HLA-DR+/CD68+M1 (stroma, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73, P = .03; intratumor, HR = 0.7, P = .04), CD204+M2 (stroma, HR = 0.7, P = .02; intratumor, HR = 0.6, P = .004), and CD68 (stroma, HR = 0.69, P = .02; intratumor, HR = 0.73, P = .04) infiltration were independently associated with improved NSCLC-specific survival. In lymph nodes, the intratumoral level of HLA-DR+/CD68+M1 was an independent positive prognostic indicator (Cox model, HR = 0.38, P = .001). In conclusion, high levels of M1, CD204+M2, and CD68 macrophages are independent prognosticators of prolonged survival in NSCLC.
Source at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2019.01.005.