LTX-315 sequentially promotes lymphocyte-independent and lymphocyte-dependent antitumor effects
AuthorLiao, Hsin-Wei; Garris, Christopher; Pfirschke, Christina; Rickelt, Steffen; Arlauckas, Sean; Siwicki, Marie; Kohler, Rainer; Weissleder, Ralph; Sundvold-Gjerstad, Vibeke; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Rekdal, Øystein; Pittet, Mikael J.
LTX-315 is an oncolytic peptide that has antitumor efficacy in mice grafted with various tumor cell lines and is currently being tested in phase II clinical trials. Here we aimed to further evaluate LTX-315 in conditional genetic mouse models of cancer that typically resist current treatment options and to better understand the drug’s mode of action in vivo. We report LTX-315 mediates profound antitumor effects against Braf- and Pten-driven melanoma and delays the progression of Kras- and P53-driven soft tissue sarcoma in mice. Additionally, we show in melanoma that LTX-315 triggers two sequential phases of antitumor response. The first phase of response, which begins within minutes of drug delivery into tumors, is defined by disrupted tumor vasculature and decreased tumor burden and occurs independently of lymphocytes. The second phase of response, which continues over weeks, is defined by long-term alteration of the tumor microenvironment; the changes induced by LTX-315 are most notably characterized by CD8+ T cell infiltration. We further show that these CD8+ T cells are involved in suppressing melanoma outgrowth in mice and report similar CD8+ T cell infiltration following LTX-315 treatment in melanoma and sarcoma patients. Taken together, these findings reveal LTX-315’s multiple antitumor effects, including disrupting the tumor vasculature and promoting the conversion of poorly immunogenic tumors into ones that display antitumor T cell immunity.