Echocardiographic assessment of diastolic dysfunction in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis before and after aortic valve replacement
Methods - In this study, 169 patients who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) were prospectively enrolled. Resting echocardiography was performed including Doppler of the mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow, tricuspid regurgitant flow and tissue Doppler in the mitral ring and indexed volume-estimates of the left atrium (LAVI). Echocardiography, and NT-proBNP levels were assessed before TAVR/SAVR and at two postoperative visits at 6 and 12 months.
Results - Pre- and postoperative values were septal e′; 5.1 ± 3.9, 5.2 ± 1.6 cm/s; lateral e′ 6.3 ± 2.1; 7.7 ± 2.7 cm/s; E/e′19 ± 8; 16 ± 7 cm/s; E velocity 96 ± 32; 95 ± 32 cm/s; LAVI 39 ± 8; 36 ± 8 ml/m2, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) 39 ± 8; 36 ± 8 mmHg, respectively. The scoring recommended by ASE/EACVI detected elevated NT pro-BNP with a specificity of 25%. Adjusting thresholds towards PAP ≥ 40 mmHg, E velocity ≥ 100 cm/s, E deceleration time < 220 ms, and E/septal e′ ≥ 20 or septal e′ < 5.0 cm/s increased prediction of NT-proBNP levels ≥500 ng/L with substantially improved specificity (> 85%).
Conclusion - Diastolic echocardiographic parameters in AS indicate persistent impaired relaxation and NT-proBNP indicate elevated filling pressures in most of the patients, improving only modestly 6–12 months after TAVR and SAVR. Applying the 2016 ASE/EACVI recommendations for detection of elevated filling pressures to patients with AS, elevated NT pro-BNP levels could not be reliably detected. However, adjusting thresholds of the echocardiographic parameters increased specificities to useful diagnostic levels.